11 May 2017

Can I work here?

Can I work here?

Industrial/organizational psychologists offer their advice for helping job seekers determine whether a potential employer offers a good fit

Workers who feel valued by their employers are more likely to be satisfied with their jobs and be motivated to do their best. They're also less likely to want to leave the organization in the next year, according to APA's 2016 Work and Well-Being Survey, which polled more than 1,500 U.S. workers.

The survey also found that work-life fit—or how well a job fits with the rest of an employee's life—plays an important role in employee retention, says David W. Ballard, PsyD, MBA, who directs APA's Center for Organizational Excellence. "Americans spend a majority of their waking hours at work and, as such, they want to have harmony between their job demands and the other parts of their lives," Ballard says. That means that to remain competitive, employers need to create environments where employees feel connected to the organization and have a work experience that's part of a rich, fulfilling life.

How can psychologists determine whether a potential employer will give them that positive experience and work-life fit? Some industrial/organizational (I/O) psychologists point to the importance of matching an employee's values with that of the organization. Others say previous work experiences—such as the factors they did and didn't like about a job or supervisor—are key indicators of what to look for in a new role. Overall, though, determining whether an organization is a good match has to start with a thorough understanding of your career priorities, I/O psychologists say. "It is as much about what your needs and preferences are as it is about the organization," Ballard says.

Look inward. Before the job search, psychologists should pinpoint what their work interests are, says I/O psychologist Edgar Schein, PhD, a professor emeritus at the MIT Sloan School of Management. Start by conducting a self-analysis of your career to date to help you determine your strengths, your values and what motivates you—or, as Schein calls it, your "career anchor." His research on career anchors has shown that most people place different amounts of emphasis on the importance of eight categories or preferences. They are technical/functional competence; general managerial competence; autonomy/independence; security/stability; entrepreneurial creativity; service/dedication to a cause; pure challenge; and lifestyle.

So, for example, among clinical psychologists, some want to work for an organization because they are more security/stability oriented, while others want to set up private practices because they want to be on their own.

He points out, however, that often one's anchor can't truly be discovered before spending several years in the workforce. "This really is a deeper level of knowledge about oneself that isn't usually something people know when they graduate," he explains. "They need 10 years of experience to really figure themselves out."

Network with experts. Early on in your career, Schein recommends reaching out to psychologists who are in jobs you can imagine moving into. "Find someone ahead of you in your career and get a sense of what work is like for them at that job," he says.

Determine personal priorities. Job seekers also have to think about their personal priorities and interests before they start their job searches, says Helena Cooper-Thomas, PhD, a professor of organizational behaviour at Auckland University of Technology in New Zealand. Her point is backed by new research: In a meta-analysis of 92 studies with nearly 35,000 participants, employees whose interest profiles matched their job profiles were more likely to perform better, help others in the organization and stay with the company longer. The study, led by Michigan State University I/O psychologist Christopher Nye, PhD, shows that it's not a person's overall interest in a particular kind of work, but how their interests across various types of work match with the skills and tasks involved in a particular job. The researchers surmise that this match—known as person-environment fit—is a much better predictor of job performance than the more general interest or personality measures often used by college career centers (Journal of Vocational Psychology, 2017).

One way job seekers can determine whether their interests match with those of other company employees is to search for the employer on LinkedIn, Ballard says. There, you can often find employees' public-facing profiles, which can offer insight into the skill sets and longevity of people who work there.

Consider a "misfit" job. Candidates should also consider where they can tolerate or even benefit from "misfit," Cooper-Thomas adds. "If you're the type of person who likes to have fun at work by playing pranks or telling jokes, you probably wouldn't do well in a secure facility, while those with a competitive streak may conflict with the compassionate and calm values found in some health-care settings," she says.

But having knowledge or skills that are different from one's colleagues can result in more innovative ideas and helpful solutions, which can help employees get noticed and accelerate their careers, she points out.

Do more research. Once psychologists determine the factors that matter most to them in a job, they should read up on any organization they are interested in, paying particular attention to its mission or values statement, says Ballard. "Something that's often telling about an organization's attention to employee well-being is whether or not it has something about creating a positive or healthy work environment and supporting staff built into its mission statement or values," he says. He also recommends doing an Internet search using both Google and Glassdoor to see how the organization is portrayed and whether, for example, they've been embroiled in any controversy. "Look not just at the things the organization itself posts, but also the kinds of comments, statements and reactions they get from other people," he says.

Get specific in your interview. Of course, it's always helpful to ask about an organization's culture during the interview process—the drawback is that there is no guarantee that the recruiter's espoused values are the values in use, warns Cooper-Thomas. What can be more helpful, she suggests, is asking your interviewers to be more specific by sharing an incident at work that reveals the organization's values in action. Interviewers could discuss a time they were particularly proud of their employer, for example.

Cooper-Thomas also notes that every organization has different layers of culture, so job seekers should try to ascertain whether they would fit with the people they would work with on a daily basis, such as supervisors and colleagues. She suggests paying particular attention to how employers treat people: Is the receptionist friendly and helpful? Did the interviewers show respect by arriving on time? Did they answer the job seeker's questions honestly?

Gauge your potential support system. Also ask interviewers about the amount of autonomy employees have within the organization, the organization's structure and the kinds of support available, Ballard says. For example, if you're looking for a job where you're providing clinical services, you'll want to know whether there is administrative, billing and collection support.

In addition, pay attention to how formal or informal the work environment appears to be, as well as how diverse and inclusive it is, Ballard says.

And if it's important to you, talk to the recruiter and your potential supervisors about flexibility and work-life fit to find out if you'd have the ability to modify when, where, and how much you work to accommodate your needs.

Think about the "fun factor." Early career psychologists have spent many years studying and planning their career paths, and are usually quite passionate about further developing them, says University of Chicago Booth School of Business professor Ayelet Fishbach, PhD. But when it comes to sticking with a job, people thrive most when they're doing interesting work with people they like, according to research by Fishbach and behavioral science doctoral candidate Kaitlin Woolley (Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2015). So, in addition to looking for benefits such as career development opportunities, it's important to consider whether you can expect to enjoy, be challenged, fulfilled and experience social connections in a work setting, the authors say. "A workplace that offers immediate benefits in terms of engagement and enjoyment is a place where people stay," Fishbach says.

Find out what a typical day would really look like. Finally, Schein encourages job seekers to get personal with the people they're interviewing. That means spending time to get to know the one or two people you have met in the organization by asking them why they got into the field and how they like their jobs. This tactic works best toward the end of the interview process, he says, or even as a follow-up call once a job is offered.

"What you really need to find out is not about all the benefits and bonuses that might be available to you, but what you'd really be doing day by day and would the people around you be supportive of that," Schein says. 

Trust your gut

Before you take a job, ask yourself the following questions:

  1. Will I be pursuing my true interests in this position?
  2. Will I have the work-life balance I want?
  3. Do my co-workers seem to mirror my values?
  4. Will I feel valued by this employer and in this position?

By Amy Novotney


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21 Apr 2017

Finding Your Dream Psychology Career

Finding Your Dream Psychology Career

Don’t want to go into practice, research or teaching? Here’s how to find a nontraditional career that uses your expertise and sparks your interest.

Many psychologists find their passions are not stirred by providing direct therapy, conducting research or teaching. They are more interested in applying their expertise on human behavior in new and atypical ways—but aren't always sure what those career paths look like.

Looking to find your own unique career path in psychology? Here's advice from career experts and psychologists who work outside academia on how to do it.

Look inward

Before you start exploring career possibilities, figure out your internal motivations and passions.

"People tend to focus on knowing what's out there and don't pay too much attention to knowing themselves," says Jennifer Polk, PhD, career coach and owner of the website From PhD to Life, which provides job advice, coaching and mentoring to doctorate holders seeking nonacademic jobs. She works with job seekers to delve into their broader interests and explore which career opportunities might be a better fit for them.

Getting comfortable with the thought of a nontraditional career requires job seekers to be honest with themselves about what they really want and why it's important to them, says Paula Chambers, PhD, founder and CEO of The Versatile PhD, a career education website that helps grad students and new doctorate-holders identify and prepare for nonacademic careers.

She recommends asking yourself questions such as:

  • What do you love about psychology?
  • What's missing?
  • What weird passions do you have that have nothing to do with your work, but you never run out of energy for?

These types of assessments can help you realize that the No. 1 person you need to please with your career is yourself, she says.

To conduct such a selfassessment, check out APA's free online resource aimed at helping job seekers develop a plan of action for pursuing their ideal jobs. Authoring your Individual Individual Development Plan starts with a self-assessment, and the tool helps users explore careers, identify gaps in experience, set goals, and create a plan with milestones and outcomes.

Network

Get to know people in business and industry who can give you an inside perspective on different career paths. One way to network is to attend nonacademic conferences in the specific fields you might be interested in, such as social work, advocacy, criminal justice, military, transportation, modeling and simulation, training, engineering, energy and more. "Market yourself to people in industry," says Brandon Perelman, PhD, a postdoctoral researcher at the U.S. Army Research Laboratory in the Human Research and Engineering Directorate. "Communicate why your research and skills are important to them," he says.

Also, search for people who have a job you might like and contact them. "Don't be afraid to reach out to complete strangers, like someone you found on LinkedIn," says Chambers. "Ask if they would be able to talk to you for 20 minutes on the phone about their work." Such informational interviews can provide inside information about various careers and help establish new connections.

Identify your skills

As you start exploring alternative career paths, think carefully about the skills you already have. If you've coordinated a large research effort like your dissertation, you have project management experience. Conveying your ideas during presentations and discussions has honed your communication skills. By working in a lab, you've developed teamwork skills. Once you start examining the components of what you do on a daily basis, you can determine how to apply those skills to nonacademic jobs.

Test the waters

If you lack some qualifications for the type of job you ultimately want, work to develop those skills, says Chambers. Students can get involved in activities on campus and those already in the workforce can look for opportunities to bolster their resumes, such as writing grant proposals, learning about budgets and financial management, or developing and leading a project. Also, consider taking classes relevant to the jobs you want, such as business, grant writing or marketing.

Volunteer work can also help you learn a new skill.

Internships and fellowships also provide the hands-on experiences psychologists need to prepare for their dream jobs. Most federal and local government agencies have internship programs. For instance, you might find internships in health policy and advocacy, criminal justice or education program evaluation, and human rights advancement around the world.

Many private companies also offer internships where you can learn about for-profit research, government contracting, business development and customer relations. Companies don't always have formal internship programs, but many will hire an intern for the summer or during busy times. "I started doing a summer internship at a private government contractor and discovered I liked it a lot," says Perelman. The experiences and connections he made during his internship helped him land his current position.

Apply for the job

So, once you've identified the job you want, how do you get hired? "Talk about your experience and skills in ways that are friendly to the industry and the organizational culture where you intend to work," says Eddy Ameen, PhD, who directs APA's Office on Early Career Psychologists.

Also, be sure to read job ads carefully to address all the requirements. For example, don't submit an academic CV when the ad asks for a resume. Prepare a resume that is shorter and more focused than your CV. Instead of talking about yourself, shift to what an employer needs and speak directly to their requirements.

For more advice on creating a resume from a CV, see the Jan. 2016 gradPSYCH article "Make Your Resume Stand Out."

Land the job

During the job interview, "your answers must be focused on the company first and yourself second," says Chambers. "Research the company extensively so you can speak intelligently about the specifics of the business."

And, employers want to know your answer to a key question: What can you do for me right now that will benefit my organization? Show them that you are the person who will meet their needs by articulating the value a psychology degree brings to any field.

Above all else, be confident. "You need to be able to sell yourself," says Shari Schwartz, PhD, who works as a mitigation expert and trial consultant at the firm she launched called Panther Advocacy and Litigation Sciences. "You've attained a doctoral-level education so there is nothing to be intimidated about. Go in there and make sure they understand you have something to offer and you'll be an asset."

By Laura Zimmerman, PhD


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20 Mar 2017

How Did You Get That Job? A Q&A with Legal Consultant Dr. Christina Studebaker

The knowledge, skills, and experience gained through your psychology education and training can successfully transfer to a variety of jobs that you might not have considered. Litigation Consultant Christina Studebaker, PhD, uses her psychology expertise to help evaluate cases and develop trial strategy by conducting small group jury research studies in which 30 to 50 people participate in a mock trial or focus group study. In this webinar, Dr. Studebaker discusses her career path and how you can apply your psychology background to a similar career.

Speaker:

Dr. Christina Studebaker, PhD, is Vice-President of ThemeVision LLC, a consulting firm that provides trial consulting, graphic design, and opinion research services. Studebaker has over a decade’s worth of experience with juror and jury decision making as a trial consultant. Prior to joining ThemeVision, Dr. Studebaker spent three years at the Federal Judicial Center, conducting empirical research on the judicial system. She also served as a professor of psychology for several years, teaching both undergraduate and graduate students. Most recently, she served as the Associate Program Director in Forensic Psychology at the Chicago School of Professional Psychology. Dr. Studebacker has authored articles published in Law & Human Behavior on topics such as pretrial publicity, damage awards, expert testimony, and juror decision making.

Host:

Dr. Garth A. Fowler is an Associate Executive Director for Education, and the Director of the Office for Graduate and Postgraduate Education and Training at APA. He leads the Directorate’s efforts to develop resources, guidelines, and policies that promote and enhance disciplinary education and training in psychology at the graduate and postdoctoral level.

This webinar series is based on, and borrows its name, How Did You Get That Job?, from the popular column in APA’s monthly member-magazine, The Monitor on Psychology.  You can read Dr. Studebaker's interview from the June 2016 issue here. The magazine is a benefit of membership with APA.

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08 Mar 2017

Fellowship Opportunities at APA and Beyond

Fellowship Opportunities at APA and Beyond

Fellowships provide funding, support research, and enable researchers to study at desirable places while gaining great field experience. Fellowships are also hard to find. So, we’ve found some for you, listed below.

APA Congressional Program

  • Description: APA's Congressional Fellowship Program places fellows as staffers for a member of Congress or as Congressional Committee staffers for one year.
  • Why it’s great: This program provides psychologists with an invaluable public policy learning experience and an opportunity to contribute to the effective use of psychological knowledge in government. This program also broadens awareness about the value of psychologist-government collaboration within the federal government.

APA Executive Branch Science Fellowship Program

  • Description: The APA Executive Branch Science Fellowship Program places a psychological scientist in a federal executive branch agency with a science-related mission for one year.
  • Why it’s great: The fellowship offers placement in esteemed national agencies, such as the National Institutes of Health, the National Science Foundation, the Department of Defense, the Department of Justice and the Federal Bureau of Investigation Academy, and provides additional learning opportunities through a science and public policy seminar series administered by the American Association for the Advancement of Science and APA.

Mental Health and Substance Abuse Services (MHSAS) Fellowship

  • Description: With grant support of $793,978 per year from SAMHSA, this fellowship is offered by APA’s Minority Fellowship Program, and provides financial support, mentoring, and professional development for 24 doctoral fellows and one postdoctoral fellow per year.
  • Why it’s great: The MHSAS Fellowship is designed to support the training of future practitioners in behavioral health services and prevention, and provides potential leaders with specialized experience in providing direct services or developing policy for ethnic and racial minority communities.

APA Services for Transition Age Youth (STAY) Fellowship

  • Description: The STAY Fellowship receives grant support of $532,000 per year from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Association (SAMHSA) for funding, mentoring, and professional development of up to 40 fellows at the master’s level per year.
  • Why it’s great: The STAY Fellowship is uniquely designed for students in terminal master’s programs in psychology whose training prepares them to provide mental health services to transition age youth (ages 16 through 25) and their families.

Elizabeth Munsterberg Koppitz Child Psychology Graduate Student Fellowship

  • Description: Sponsored by the American Psychological Foundation (APF), the fellowship awards $25,000 for graduate students in child psychology.
  • Why it’s great: Not only does the fellowship provide development opportunities for students who are in the process of shaping their careers in various areas of psychology, but it also provides support for scholarly work that contributes to the advancement of psychology.

Summer Science Fellowship

  • Description: The APA Summer Undergraduate Psychology Research Experience Grants program offers up to five grants to college and university departments to support undergraduate research assistantships in psychology laboratories for six to eight weeks during the summer to provide undergraduate students with research experiences.
  • Why it’s great: This fellowship is uniquely designed to provide undergraduate students who have little or no prior laboratory experience with the opportunity to gain firsthand knowledge of how scientific research is conducted.

While students themselves are not able to apply directly for an opportunity grant, APA makes it very easy to forward the grant announcement to teachers or department chairs and request that their school participates. APA provides funds to pay each student at the institution’s current rate of pay for undergraduate research assistants.

APAGS/Psi Chi Junior Scientist Fellowship

  • Description: The Junior Scientist Fellowship provides support for students in the early stages of a research-oriented graduate program with funding for a research project so they can gain research experience.
  • Why it’s great: In addition to providing research experience, the fellowship also serves to increase recipients’ chances of securing a National Science Foundation (NSF) Graduate Research Fellowship in the future.

Here are a few fellowships that are offered outside of APA that might be of interest as well:

APA-IUPSYS Global Mental Health Fellowship

  • Description: The APA-IUPsyS Global Mental Health Fellowship enables psychologists to contribute to the World Health Organization (WHO), in the Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse, for one year. Fellows focus on issues related to the WHO Mental Health Action Plan following an orientation period at WHO headquarters in Geneva.
  • Why it’s great: The fellowship provides a unique opportunity for a psychologist to contribute to WHO’s work and be involved with international mental health policy and implementation.

The Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health’s Predoctoral Fellowship in Gender, Sexuality and Health

  • Description: The predoctoral fellowship, funded by a training grant award from the National Institute of Child Health and Development, Population Dynamics Branch, offers PhD applicants who are planning on entering doctoral training programs in the fall substantial funding, guaranteed for up to five years.
  • Why it’s great: The predoctoral fellowship is the nation’s first multidisciplinary doctoral training program in gender, sexuality, and health, and is designed to prepare students for research and teaching careers focusing on the role of gender and sexuality in shaping reproductive and sexual health, both nationally and globally.

Jacquelin Goldman Congressional Fellowship

  • Description: The fellowship offers up to $90,000 to developmental and clinical psychologists with existing experience working with children for the enhancement and promotion of psychologist-government interaction among psychologists and within the federal government.
  • Why it’s great: Fellows with an interest in public policy related to the psychological development of children will gain an unparalleled learning experience, attending a two-week orientation program on congressional and executive branch operations and participating in a yearlong seminar series on science and public policy issues.

Here are some other policy-related fellowships to consider:

James Marshall Public Policy Fellowship (Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues (SPSSI)

  • Description: This postdoctoral congressional fellowship provides the opportunity to apply psychological research to the analysis of social and science policy. Fellows enjoy access to a range of AAAS Fellowship professional development opportunities and support throughout the fellowship year and beyond.
  • Why it’s great: Knowledge of policy processes at the national level is “desirable” but not required, which means candidates who are interested in policy but don’t have a lot of experience in the policy field still have a chance.

The Dalmas Taylor Memorial Summer Minority Policy Fellowship

  • Description: The fellowship, jointly hosted by APA, provides graduate students of color with an opportunity to work on public policy issues for two to three months each summer in Washington, D.C.
  • Why it’s great: This fellowship is perfect for grad students who have committed to a career with a focus on ethnic minority issues.

Special Note: All applicants for the Dalmas Taylor Fellowship are strongly encouraged to apply for the APA Minority Fellowship Program Summer Institute.  Preference will be given to applicants who apply to both!

Society for Research in Child Development Policy Fellowships

  • Description: The SRCD offers both congressional and executive branch fellowships for postdoctoral scholars from a variety of disciplines who demonstrate exceptional competence in an area of child development research.
  • Why it’s great: Fellows are offered access to staff members of the SRCD Office for Policy and Communications in Washington to be used as a resource throughout the year. Following the fellowship, fellows move on to a wide variety of careers in academia, public policy, or research.

Capitol City Fellowship Program

  • Description: Graduates of master’s degree programs are placed in city agencies to participate in public policy making at the local level, and are given the opportunity to meet with city officials during the fellowship.
  • Why it’s great: The program simultaneously prepares fellows for government public service at the local level, and develops their management abilities.

Leaders for Health Equity

  • Description: This is a new fellowship program for early career health-care professionals offered by The George Washington University and funded by the Atlantic Philanthropies, with a focus on health disparities, designed to develop leaders in the advancement of health equity.
  • Why it’s great: The fellowship combines traditional in-person and online learning, and helps students build comprehensive knowledge of national and global health disparities.

Public Health Fellowship in Government

  • Description: Offered by the American Public Health Association, this fellowship offers placement in the House or Senate, and fellows are given the opportunity to work on legislative and policy issues such as creating healthy communities; improving health equity; and addressing environmental health concerns, population health or the social determinants of health.
  • Why it’s great: Fellows receive the opportunity to enhance public health science and practical knowledge in government.

Robert Wood Johnson Health Policy Fellows Program

  • Description: This fellowship offers mid-career health professionals and behavioral and social scientists who are interested in federal health policy with an opportunity to work directly with health policy leaders.
  • Why it’s great: More than 250 RWJF fellows have participated in the policy process at the federal level and have applied that leadership experience to the improvement of the health-care system, public health and health policy.

White House Fellowship Program

  • Description: This fellowship provides early career professionals who hold a record of achievement and leadership with the opportunity to work with White House career staff and with Cabinet members. White House fellows typically spend a year as full-time, paid assistants to senior White House staff, the Vice President, Cabinet Secretaries and other top-ranking government officials.
  • Why it’s great: The mission of the program is for fellows to return to their former or new occupations more experienced in public policy decision-making and better prepared to contribute to national affairs.

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01 Mar 2017

How Did You Get That Job? A Q&A with FAA Manager Dr. Paul Eckert

The knowledge, skills, and experience gained through your psychology education and training can successfully transfer to a variety of jobs that you may never have previously considered. As Manager of Strategic Planning for the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Dr. Paul Eckert, PhD, uses his psychology expertise to lead goal development and performance measurement for the world’s largest aviation safety and air traffic control organization. In this webinar, Dr. Eckert shares his experience about his career path and how you can apply your psychology background to a similar career.

Speaker:
Dr. Paul Eckert is Manager of Strategic Planning for the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), within the Office of Policy, International Affairs, and Environment. He plays a key role in maintaining and improving the safety and efficiency of commercial aviation and space transportation. Eckert has also worked at NASA, the U.S. Department of Commerce and the Boeing Company’s space exploration division. He is a former APA Congressional Fellow who worked in the office of Sen. John Breaux (D-La.).

Host:
Dr. Garth A. Fowler is an Associate Executive Director for Education, and the Director of the Office for Graduate and Postgraduate Education and Training at APA. He leads the Directorate’s efforts to develop resources, guidelines, and policies that promote and enhance disciplinary education and training in psychology at the graduate and postdoctoral level.

This webinar series is based on, and borrows its name, How Did You Get That Job?, from the popular column in APA’s monthly member-magazine, The Monitor on Psychology. 

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31 Jul 2016

Financial Planning for Early Career Psychologists: From Repaying Student Loans to Successful Retirement

Financial Planning for Early Career Psychologists: From Repaying Student Loans to Successful Retirement

The financial planning process calls for setting personal and professional goals (including paying off debts1), assembling a portfolio of financial resources needed to achieve those goals, and adjusting your portfolio (mainly personal savings and investments) for life-changing events.

The task can be formidable, especially for early career psychologists trying to achieve financial stability and pay down debt at the same time.

This publication of the American Psychological Association and its Committee on Early Career Psychologists provides insight into the financial-planning process for psychologists and information on what financial planning comprises. Readers can learn financial-planning basics and then decide to do their own financial planning or select a financial planner to bring expertise and objectivity to the job.

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29 Jul 2016

Develop Your Leadership Skills

This webinar explores what it is like to be an early career psychologist involved in APA leadership.

Why Serve on an APA Board or Committee?

Serving on APA boards and committees provides opportunities for leadership development and to impact the field and direction of psychology as a whole. It is challenging, rewarding work on a team of people who are at diverse levels of specialty and training who work in different settings and are at different stages in their careers.

About the Webinar

The webinar "Develop Your Leadership Skills: Get Involved in APA Boards and Committees" has everything early career psychologists need to know to get started. The Committee on Early Career Psychologists presents what, why and how early career psychologists are changing and influencing APA governance and the discipline worldwide and how you can get involved. Also, get information on how APA is organized, what APA committees and boards do and get answers to frequently asked questions about leadership positions.

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