1. Practice mindfulness. Numerous studies have demonstrated that mindfulness has benefits for body and mind, reducing stress and depression and even boosting immune function. It can also be instrumental in maintaining work-life balance. In a study of working parents, psychologist Tammy D. Allen, PhD, found people with greater mindfulness reported better work-family balance, better sleep quality and greater vitality (Journal of Vocational Behavior, 2012). "Cultivating a habit of self-awareness is vital," says John Christensen, PhD, past co-chair of the APA Advisory Committee on Colleague Assistance. "One of the best things we can do is to develop a reflective habit of checking in with ourselves at least a couple times a day, taking note of the emotional ‘weather' without judgment."
2. Look for silver linings. H. Shellae Versey, PhD, a psychologist at Wesleyan University, found that when working adults looked for benefit in negative situations, they experienced fewer negative psychological effects from work-family conflict. The finding was especially strong for women. During stressful periods, for instance, it can help to think of work-family conflict as a temporary strain, and to focus on the payoffs, such as higher salaries and better opportunities. But lowering expectations and downgrading one's goals did not have that protective effect, she found (Developmental Psychology, 2015). The difference, she believes, is that positive reappraisal is a way of taking control, while downgrading goals can feel like giving up. "Lowering aspirations without having another goal or Plan B in mind could be detrimental," she says.
3. Draw from positive psychology. The principles of positive psychology can aid in psychologists' self-care, as Erica Wise, PhD, and colleagues described in an article on psychologist well-being (Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 2012). Positive emotions can broaden cognitive, attentional and behavioral repertoires, she explains, which boosts resilience and facilitates well-being. One evidence-based way to boost positive emotions is to practice expressing gratitude on a regular basis.
4. Take advantage of social support. Seeking support from other people is critical to well-being. Geertje van Daalen, PhD, at Tilburg University in the Netherlands, and colleagues found that social support from spouses and colleagues can be especially important for reducing conflict from family obligations spilling over into the workday (Journal of Vocational Behavior, 2006). Connecting with professional colleagues can be especially important for psychologists, Christensen adds. "Many psychologists work in their own silos and have little contact with professional peers," he says. "That isolation can be a risk factor for burnout."
5. Seek out good supervisors. Unsurprisingly, sympathetic bosses can also be helpful — something to keep in mind if you're on the hunt for a new job. David Almeida, PhD, at Penn State University, and colleagues found people had more negative emotions and greater stress on days when work obligations interfered with family responsibilities. But those negative effects were buffered by supportive supervisors (Journal of Marriage and Family, 2016).
6. Get moving. A robust body of research has shown that exercise can boost mood in the short term, and in the long term can improve symptoms of depression, anxiety, addictive disorders and cognitive decline.
7. Go outside. Spending time in nature has been linked to improved cognition, attention, mood and subjective well-being. It also appears to reduce symptoms of stress and depression, as Roger Walsh, PhD, a psychologist at the University of California, Irvine, described in a review of lifestyle changes and mental health (American Psychologist, 2011).
8. Make your life meaningful. In his American Psychologist article, Walsh also described the benefits of seeking meaning — whether through religion, spirituality or volunteer service. "We do our best work and live our best lives when we have a sense of meaning — a feeling that what we do extends beyond us and brings good to others," says clinical psychologist Sandra Lewis, PsyD.
- This article was originally published in the July/August 2016 Monitor on Psychology