18 Oct 2017

Julianne Holt-Lunstad Probes Loneliness, Social Connections

Julianne Holt-Lunstad Probes Loneliness, Social Connections
APA member Julianne Holt-Lunstad studies social connectivity and the the growing epidemic of loneliness. (Photo: Mark A. Philbrick)

Not many people willingly cop to being lonely. It carries with it a social stigma of pathos that, at the very least, may hurt your self-esteem.

But what if it can damage much more than that? What if it carries the same health risk as smoking 15 cigarettes a day? What if social isolation is twice as harmful as obesity and as lethal as alcoholism?

Today, researchers from across the sciences are asking, “Can loneliness kill you?”

Recent public debate over this issue has centered largely on the isolating influence of social media on creating what has been referred to as a “loneliness epidemic” in the culture. However, APA member and social-connectedness expert Julianne Holt-Lunstad, PhD, warns that the problem goes much deeper and that substantial evidence of it predates the technology boom.

“There have indeed been dramatic shifts in how people are connecting and interacting socially now,” Holt-Lunstad says, adding: “But the majority of the epidemiological data we have that established this as a risk factor for premature mortality was conducted before widespread use of most of these technologies.”

If anyone understands the gravity of the public health threat it poses—and the difficulty of getting it on the public health agenda—it is she.

Holt-Lunstad, a psychology professor at Brigham Young University, was the first U.S. researcher to publish a large-scale analysis of studies establishing poor social support as a major contributor to morbidity.

“I remember thinking early in my career, ‘Why doesn’t everyone else recognize this?’” says Holt-Lunstad, who read early studies about social connection while a graduate student. “Is it perhaps because the evidence isn’t as strong as I think it is? Or because it is being measured in a variety of different ways … that don’t give it that level of precision the medical community demands? That’s when I decided to do that first meta-analysis.”

Her trailblazing 2010 study, Social Relationships and Mortality Risk: A Meta-analytic Review (PLOS Medicine), blew the doors open on links between social connectivity and mortality and generated buzz in the media as well as in the medical establishment.

Significantly, it showed that people with strong social bonds are 50 percent less likely to die over a given period of time than those who have fewer social connections.

The meta-analysis combined data from148 studies that tracked the social habits of more than 300,000 people worldwide. The research team developed extensive coding for variables that could be weighted to get the overall magnitude effect of social connection on health—no matter the sample sizes of the studies.

These findings were confirmed with a follow-up meta-analysis published in 2015, which expanded the sample to more than 3.4 million individuals worldwide and teased out more nuances.

“We wanted to know: Does it vary by country (It does not!)? Does it vary by cause of death (Doesn’t matter!)? Is it stronger for men vs. women (Equally strong!)?” says Holt-Lunstad emphatically. “This was a snapshot of real life, right? With implications for real-life health outcomes.”

Developing interventions to tackle this public health threat has a host of challenges—not the least of which is fine-tuning our understanding of the quantity and quality of social relationships and their impact on long-term health and morbidity.

For starters, what are the differences between isolation and loneliness?

“The way they are conceptualized and measured is quite different,” says Holt-Lunstad. Isolation is defined more by the actual size of one’s network or the frequency of contact, she says, whereas loneliness “is thought to be more of a subjective experience or perception of isolation, a discrepancy between one’s desired and actual level of connection.”

Further, she observes: “Someone can be lonely but not isolated, or isolated but not lonely.”

These distinctions are important when designing measures and interventions for each. One of the ways Holt-Lunstad has attacked these issues is to gather data on biological pathways connected to the experience of social connectivity.

“Participants come to my lab and I hook them up to equipment to look at their cardiovascular functioning. I’ve also taken saliva and blood samples to look at the neuroendocrine piece. I measured the physiology among those who had more or less supportive people in their network. In some studies, I asked them to bring in a friend and measured their physiology while interacting with them.”

The results from this multidisciplinary research have yielded some fascinating information:

Holt-Lunstad’s life and work intersected perilously in 2011 when her husband was diagnosed with stage 4 cancer. The working mother of two suddenly found herself dependent on friends to help her keep the family running while supporting her hospitalized husband.

Fiercely independent by nature, she says it was “an eye-opener to me of just how hard it is to accept support.”

“One of these social barriers is that we value our independence so highly,” she reflects. “Needing others is viewed as a weakness rather than a conceptualization of interdependence—that we can rely on others and they can rely on us.”

Fortunately, her husband made a recovery, and Holt-Lunstad used her experiences to galvanize her mission to get the issue of social connectivity even more forcefully onto the public health agenda.

She recently testified before the U.S. Senate Special Committee on Aging, where she outlined the greater social changes that underpin today’s loneliness epidemic. This summer, she and her cohorts published something of a manifesto in the American Psychologist http://www.apa.org/pubs/journals/releases/amp-amp0000103.pdf, where they offered supporting data and detailed recommendations for advancing social connection as a U.S. public health priority.

“It’s incredibly gratifying that it’s getting the attention that it deserves but of course there’s still a long way to go,” she says. “If you look at CDC’s Social Detriments of Health it’s very peripheral, which is surprising since we know there is substantial evidence of lifestyle factors influencing health.

“It may sound a bit audacious,” she continues, “but I’ve been thinking about how we might have consensus guidelines around social connection, as we do around physical activity and sleep. If we expect the public to take this seriously for their health it seems we need something like that so they know what to do and how well they’re doing.

“Of course, these would need to be evidence-based and subject to periodic review as the science progresses, just as nutritional guidelines are,” she continues, “But by having these guidelines it could have a cascading effect on public health.”

Social-connectivity assessment and intervention could become part of medical education and the conversations doctors have with their patients at well-checks, she says. It could become part of K–12 health education, helping children to be more inclusive, build community and improve their mental health.

“When we look at the increase in anxiety and depression in kids and teens, social-connectedness interventions could potentially help reduce those,” says Holt-Lunstad. “I don’t want to claim this will solve all the world’s problems, but it could potentially help and it may be one of the root causes of some of our pressing public health issues.”

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16 Oct 2017

Access to Care for All Veterans

Access to Care for All Veterans

The Department of Veterans Affairs and APA are working to improve treatment for veterans in new ways

Hiring 1,000 more mental health professionals and increasing the number of private-sector mental health providers who are culturally competent in military issues are among the new priorities at the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), according to VA Secretary David J. Shulkin, MD, who testified in March to the House Veterans Affairs Committee.

Shulkin also emphasized the need to strengthen suicide-prevention programs and announced his intention to open up access to treatment to veterans with other-than-honorable discharges.

APA is helping to ensure that the secretary's goals become a reality by pushing Congress to expand resources for VA mental health care and research. "We are thrilled that Dr. Shulkin was named VA secretary," says Heather O'Beirne Kelly, PhD, who in March was named APA's first-ever director of veterans and military health policy. "And we applaud all his newly announced priorities."

Saving lives

The number of veterans committing suicide has dropped to roughly 20 a day, the secretary told Congress. But when it comes to suicide prevention, he said, "What we are doing now—and we are doing a lot—is not enough." The VA is seeking new approaches, he said. "We are reaching out to the very best and brightest from the academic world and the community to come in and tell us what else we can do."

As part of Shulkin's suicide-prevention effort, he plans to make emergency mental health care accessible to the 500,000-plus veterans who have other-than-honorable discharges, which render them ineligible for VA care. "Our goal is simple: to save lives," said Shulkin, explaining that the suicide rate among veterans who don't use VA facilities is increasing at a greater rate than that of veterans receiving care within the VA.

Shulkin's proposal would give veterans with other-than-honorable discharges access to VA emergency departments, vet centers and the Veterans Crisis Line at (800) 273-8255. The secretary plans to meet with members of Congress, Department of Defense officials and representatives of veterans service organizations before finalizing his proposal this summer.

Veteran Thomas Burke, who received an other-than-honorable discharge after being booted from the Marines for smoking hashish to manage post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in Afghanistan, supports the proposal. "When people think of ‘less-than-honorable' discharge, they think of dishonorable; to get a dishonorable discharge, you have to rape or murder someone," says Burke, now treasurer of High Ground Veterans Advocacy and a master's degree candidate at Yale Divinity School. But, he says, other-than-honorable discharges are often the result of behavior related to PTSD, traumatic brain injury, military sexual assault and other mental health problems. Of course, says Burke, the secretary's proposal is just a proposal. That's why he and other veterans in High Ground support the Honor Our Commitment Act, which seeks to transform the proposal into legislation requiring the VA to provide mental and behavioral health services to veterans with other-than-honorable discharges.

APA outreach

APA supports the secretary's proposals, says Kelly. APA generally supports the proposed legislation, too, although Kelly wants to keep a close eye on implementation details. There have been calls to retroactively assess veterans' discharge statuses, for example, and it would be critical to understand how and by whom those assessments would be performed and interpreted and how they would be used by the VA for health-care decision-making, Kelly says.

Of course, the secretary will also need resources to fulfill his vision for the VA. APA called for that increased funding along with other requests in testimony to the House Appropriations Committee's Subcommittee on Military Construction, Veterans Affairs and Related Agencies in March:

  • Suicide prevention. APA supports Shulkin's commitment to enhanced suicide prevention efforts. In terms of other clinical priorities, Kelly urged Congress to support the hiring of more psychologists, increase support for integrated care and hold community providers to the VA's high standards.
  • Prescriptive authority. Kelly also urged Congress to grant prescriptive authority to appropriately trained psychologists in the VA.
  • Research funding. As part of the Friends of VA Medical Care and Health Research, APA asked for $713 million in fiscal year 2018 for VA research. "A strong VA psychological research program provides the scientific foundation for high-quality care within the VA system," Kelly told Congress.

One concern is the VA's push toward privatization, with more care being provided outside of VA facilities, adds Kelly. While many veterans groups were happy to hear the secretary talk of eliminating the rule requiring veterans who live close to VA facilities to get their care there, she says, APA is concerned that community providers may lack the preparation and capacity to handle the increased demand. Plus, says Kelly, having psychologists embedded into primary-care settings is vital to ensuring high-quality care for veterans.

"We will continue to work with Secretary Shulkin and the VA about what they mean by community care to ensure that the VA is strengthened as an integrated-care provider for veterans and not just as a funder of outside care," Kelly says.

To read Dr. Heather Kelly's full testimony to the House Subcommittee on Military Construction, Veterans Affairs and Related Agencies, go to www.apa.org/about/gr/issues/military/testimony_va_research.pdf.

By Rebecca A. Clay


This article was originally published in the June 2017 Monitor on Psychology

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11 Oct 2017

How Much Do Today’s Psychologists Earn?

How Much Do Today’s Psychologists Earn?

The latest salary report from APA finds that psychologists in the middle of the country outearn their peers

In May, APA's Center for Workforce Studies (CWS) released its most comprehensive salary report to date. The report finds that the median annual salary for U.S. psychologists in 2015 was $85,000, but that salaries varied widely by subfield and geographic region.

Most psychologists (57.4 percent) earned between $60,000 and $120,000, 20 percent earned less than $60,000, and 22.7 percent earned more than $120,000. Those in industrial/organizational psychology were at the top of that range—the median annual salary for I/O psychologists was $125,000. Those with a degree in educational psychology, at the other end of the spectrum, earned a median salary of $75,000.

Want to earn more? Move to the Middle Atlantic region, where psychologists earned, on average, $108,000 per year. Psychologists in the East South Central region, in contrast, earned $59,000 per year.Psychologist salaries

Meanwhile, women continued to earn less than men ($80,000 compared with $91,000), white psychologists earned more ($88,000) than racial/ethnic minority psychologists ($71,000), and those with a PhD earned more ($85,000) than those with a PsyD ($75,000). (To read more about the gender pay gap, see the article "Women Outnumber Men in Psychology, But Not in the Field's Top Echelons" in the July/August Monitor.)

The new salary report is APA's most representative look yet at psychologists' earning power, according to Luona Lin, a CWS research associate. In previous reports, the association's salary data came from member surveys, but APA members skew older and less racially and ethnically diverse than the profession as a whole.

The new report instead analyzes data from the 2015 National Survey of College Graduates, a nationally representative survey conducted every two years by the U.S. Census Bureau on behalf of the National Science Foundation's National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics. The CWS report pulls the survey's data on full-time working psychologists—those with a doctorate or professional degree in psychology who work at least 35 hours per week.

The NSF survey was revised with a new sample design in 2010, adding a fresh level of detail for CWS to examine.

"Because this is a new data set to look at salaries in psychology, we have a lot of variables that weren't available before," Lin says. For example, for professional service positions, she and her colleagues were able to analyze salaries by employment sector (public, private, nonprofit) and employer size. For psychologists in management, they could break out salaries by a person's number of direct reports. And for researchers, they could examine salaries by type of institution and research activity.

There were a few surprises in the data. For example, salaries were highest in the Middle ­Atlantic region, which includes cities with a high cost of living, such as New York and Philadelphia. But salaries were also relatively high in the Midwest—$92,000 in the West North Central area (which stretches from Kansas to Minnesota), and $91,000 in the West South Central area (which includes Texas, Arkansas, Oklahoma and Louisiana).

"That was kind of surprising at first glance," Lin says.

But, she adds, the explanation might lie in a 2014 CWS report on job ads, which found a high concentration of open positions in the center of the country.

"We haven't done a causal analysis for this, but we think it might be highly relevant—the salaries [in the Midwest] could be driven higher by demand."

Lin says that interest in the report has been high, and that CWS staff plan to produce new salary reports biannually when NSF releases new survey data.

To read the full report and access the underlying data, go to www.apa.org/workforce/publications/2015-salaries/index.aspx.

By Lea Winerman


This article was originally published in the September 2017 Monitor on Psychology

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04 Oct 2017

Boosting Productivity

Boosting Productivity

Research identifies small changes that lead to big improvements in performance

When Larry Rosen, PhD, talks to people who want to improve their productivity, he zeroes in on the importance of minimizing interruptions. Rosen, professor emeritus of psychology at California State University, Dominguez Hills, goes as far as to suggest that people put up a "do not disturb" sign when they need to focus on a task.

While this may not be plausible for everyone, Rosen's studies have shown how being distracted can become a bad habit that ultimately decreases our effectiveness at work or in school.

Fortunately, he and other psychology researchers have identified new ways to help people overcome the hurdles that stand in the way of their productivity, whether they are personal habits or environmental challenges. Here are some of those findings.

Grow your attention span

Even though technology can empower us to accomplish things faster, Rosen has found that those benefits can disappear when digital distractions are so readily available.

In one study, Rosen asked 260 middle school, high school and university students to study for 15 minutes in their homes. He found that participants averaged less than 6 minutes of studying before switching tasks, most often due to technology distractions—phones vibrating, new email alerts or instant message notifications, as well as students' "self-interruptions" to check electronic devices (Computers in Human Behavior, Vol. 29, No. 3, 2013).

While it can be tempting to think that dealing with these messages is productive, Rosen says this is a false sense of effectiveness. "We may think we are multitasking, but we are really task-switching," he says. "These interruptions take us away from the task at hand." The original task becomes less salient in our brains, and when we return, we waste time trying to remember what we were thinking when we left, Rosen explains.

To increase attention span and productivity, one of Rosen's solutions is the "technology break." He encourages students and workers to give themselves a couple of minutes to check alerts, texts and other messages after 15 minutes of undistracted work. The best way to stay focused is silencing the phone, turning it face down to avoid seeing visual notifications, turning off email alerts and closing distracting websites, Rosen says.

"Once you learn how to work for 15 minutes, start increasing the time before taking a technology break," Rosen says.

Taking short breaks not only satisfies the technology fix, but it also allows us to maintain focus, according to a study conducted by Alejandro Lleras, PhD, a psychology professor at the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign. He found that participants who took a short break while focusing on a visual task maintained the same level of performance for 40 minutes, but performance declined for those who didn't take any breaks (Cognition, Vol. 118, No. 3, 2010).

"We know that after about 30 minutes, concentration starts to decrease, so it's important to take small breaks to stay focused on your main task."

The results also showed that the breaks can be surprisingly short—only a couple of seconds for some tasks—to achieve this effect.

Write out your goals

Many people who work are familiar with the idea of setting goals for themselves, but achieving those goals can be elusive. Research is showing that establishing a habit of writing about goals can boost performance.

Cheryl Travers, PhD, a professor at the School of Business and Economics at Loughborough University in Leicestershire, England, asked students to identify areas where they needed to improve, such as raising a grade in a class or increasing concentration while studying. The students were asked to visualize desired outcomes and outline how they could put their goals into practice.

Then the students kept diaries for three months to reflect on their goal progress. For example, students could write down what happened as they attempted to make a change in a particular situation, what worked well or not well, what could have been done better and actions they could take going forward. Travers found that the reflective goal-related writing had a significant impact on their ability to perform better academically (British Journal of Educational Psychology, Vol. 85, No. 2, 2015).

"The act of writing something down seems to make us accountable to a goal," Travers says. "It also helps people to write their way through a problem when they encounter barriers."

By writing about successes and failures and thinking about strategies to overcome difficulties, students gained confidence in themselves and developed academic self-efficacy, Travers says. What was particularly interesting was the evidence showing that academic performance improved even for students who set nonacademic, "softer" goals, such as "increase my assertiveness" or "decrease stress."

Travers is now collecting diaries for managers in organizations, and she will be studying whether this reflective goal setting improves their effectiveness as leaders. "This process allows people to essentially become self-coaches because they are continually evaluating goal outcomes and becoming more self-aware about leader behaviors."

Get together

The idea of fitting in another meeting may seem counter-productive for people working in group settings, but research suggests that taking time to debrief as a team can improve productivity in the long run.

Michaela Schippers, PhD, a professor of behavior and performance management at the Rotterdam School of Management at Erasmus University, studied teams working in a health-care environment. She found that the groups that met regularly to evaluate work processes were much more likely to come up with innovative solutions to problems than groups that did not meet regularly. Her work has shown how this team reflexivity (reflecting on team functioning) can significantly improve work performance levels (Journal of Management, Vol.41, No. 3, 2015; Journal of Organizational Behavior, Vol. 34, No. 1, 2013).

"Workers should have regular debriefings, like in the military, but the purpose is not to point out what people are doing wrong," Schippers says. "Instead, the group can brainstorm how to improve as a team, ideally with a facilitator who is leading the meeting."

In the study, the reflexive teams talked about issues such as decreasing waiting times for patients, improving patient record systems and developing a more effective appointment system.

"Our work showed that it was very important for teams that are particularly busy to meet regularly to debrief, because these teams benefited most from the innovative improvements," Schippers says. "The meetings gave them space to think collectively about what could be changed."

Get out of the chair

Researchers are finding that employees with stand-­capable workstations may be more productive than their seated counterparts. Mark Benden, PhD, a professor in the department of environmental and occupational health at Texas A&M School of Public Health, studied two groups of call center employees over six months. One group sat at traditional desks and the other group at stations that enabled workers to elevate their tables whenever they wanted to stand. Benden found that those with stand-capable workstations stood about 1.5 hours longer per day and were 42 percent more productive than those who worked at seated desks. Productivity was measured by how many successful calls the workers completed per hour (IIE Transaction on Occupational Ergonomics and Human Factors, Vol. 4, No. 2-3, 2016).

"By being up more of the time, we improve blood flow to the brain and circulation to the body, and these things combine to make the brain more active and engaged," Benden says.

Research also suggests that it is important for people to avoid "static standing" in one place, he says. The best stand-­capable workstations have foot rails that allow workers to take weight off of one side of the body. If it's not possible to get this type of workstation, workers should take breaks to walk around and get out of the chair, Benden says.

Further reading

The Distracted Mind: Ancient Brains in a High-Tech World 
Gazzaley, A., & Rosen, L., 2016

Managing Motivation: A Manager's Guide to Diagnosing and Improving Motivation 
Pritchard R.D., & Ashwood, E.L., 2008

Evidence-Based Productivity Improvement: A Practical Guide to the Productivity Measurement and Enhancement System 
Pritchard, R.D., Weaver, S.J., & Ashwood, E.L., 2012

Future Time Perspective and Promotion Focus as Determinants of Intraindividual Change in Work Motivation 
Kooij, D.T., Bal, P.M., & Kanfer, R., Psychology and Aging, 2014

By Heather Stringer


This article was originally published in the September 2017 Monitor on Psychology

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02 Oct 2017

Kit Yarrow is Unlocking Consumer Shopping Behavior

Kit Yarrow is Unlocking Consumer Shopping Behavior
Kit Yarrow
APA Fellow Kit Yarrow is a well-known researcher on consumer behavior.

Kit Yarrow, PhD, does not believe retail is dead, far from it. Consumer psychology has changed dramatically in the past decade, though, and Yarrow predicts the retailers who survive will be those who appreciate their shoppers’ potent desire for an engaging and validating experience in the marketplace.

Yarrow is a well-known researcher on consumer behavior, a popular speaker, a longtime academic and the author of two books: “Gen BuY: How Tweens, Teens and Twenty-Somethings Are Revolutionizing Retail” (Jossey-Bass, 2009) with Jane O’Donnell and “Decoding the New Consumer Mind: How and Why We Shop and Buy” (Jossey-Bass, 2014). She has blogged for magazines like Money, Time and Psychology Today, among other publications; her most popular article was for Money magazine in 2016, The Science of Why We Buy Clothes We Don’t Wear.

Yarrow identifies “three shifts in our world, three ways in which we as people have changed noticeably in the past 5 years or so, and, because of those shifts, how our needs have changed in terms of what we feel we need to add to our lives.”

First, technology is now embedded in daily activities, our phones and laptops tether us to one another in ways that are captivating but superficial, and ultimately unsatisfactory. “We feel more disconnected, so we use brands and products to feel seen and heard, and to reconnect with others,” she says.

Second, “there’s more emotionality, with elevated levels of anger and anxiety,” in part because people may not feel as safe or accepted as they once did. “People shop differently and want different things when they are more emotional. A hassle feels doubly so.” Retailers and manufacturers both need to make it easier for shoppers to understand the benefits of their products, and to streamline the purchasing process, Yarrow says.

Third, the past several years have seen a “trend toward individualism,” which means people are no longer as likely to make purchases as part of a group. Even young people are more willing to pass up “the cool item,” Yarrow says, taking the time to find one-of-a-kind pieces, sifting through thrift stores to put together a distinctive look.

“There’s no way to succeed in retail today without understanding consumer psychology,” she says. “Consumers actually don’t want to shop online. They want to go to stores, but not the way they are now.” Shoppers like to feel connected with other people like themselves, but “they don’t want to trawl through a mall and see the same thing in every store.” Yarrow says stores mostly run by “nimble younger retailers” willing to display interesting items, not necessarily keeping them in stock, and engaging their customers at every turn are where things are headed. Shoppers can touch and feel things in these stores, try them on, photograph and post them on social media, and then have them delivered from the warehouse to their homes. Yarrow singled out Betabrand, an online retailer with a store in San Francisco, where designs are often crowd-sourced and crowd-funded. Fans who vote for a design that makes it into production get a discount on the finished product.

Does this mean the end to department and traditional retail stores is at hand?  “These stores are part of our American culture, and I’m rooting for them, but they are going to have to change or die.” They must understand, Yarrow says, the consumer is in charge now.

As for online retailers, they need to “make it easy to navigate their sites, and offer opportunities to see what other shoppers are looking at and buying to create a more social environment,” she says.

In her research, Yarrow does not use focus groups, where people are invited to share their opinions of products, because she believes the real decision making about what to buy or not to buy does not occur at the conscious level.

“It’s more about how people feel than what they think,” she says.

Instead, Yarrow conducts a type of ethnography, spending time with people she often recruits through social media, going through their closets, “shopping along” on trips to stores and riding home with them after a successful, or not-so-successful, shopping trip.

“That’s where I get the goods—in the car,” she says. “People say the most wonderful things when they’re done shopping and they’re focused on the road. That’s when they can go inside themselves and help me understand why they passed this up, or bought that, how it’s related to the rest of their lives, what it all means.”

Marketers and manufacturers often fund Yarrow’s research, and sometimes are surprised that she is advising “the enemy,” but she says, “I have never worked for a company that has bad intentions. They want to make better products, and I can easily support what they are doing. No company lives on one-time purchases. If they don’t deliver, they will fail. I don’t think marketers are the enemy, and I never will.”

As Yarrow sees it, her training in clinical psychology is alive and well in her work. “I yearn to talk to consumers,” she says.

Yarrow did not set out to be psychologist.  She studied journalism in undergraduate school before deciding to become a clinical psychologist. She went to graduate school at the Wright Institute in Berkeley, Calif., where the need to keep up with tuition pushed Yarrow to teach an undergraduate marketing class as an adjunct at nearby Golden Gate University (GGU) in San Francisco—the serendipitous start to her life’s work.

“I was finishing up my psychology internships when I realized I loved the research, the teaching, the assessment. That’s where my heart was,” she says. “All of a sudden, I switched.”

When a full-time position opened in the GGU marketing department, Yarrow jumped at it. “I found a way to bring in psychology by doing research in consumer behavior.” She also taught undergraduate psychology classes.

In 1992, with the encouragement of the administration, Yarrow and six colleagues founded GGU’s graduate psychology department, which Yarrow chaired for nearly 25 years. She is a professor emerita now and exploring publishing her latest research in articles or another book.

“Just like everybody else I know, I did not follow a direct path,” she says.

Yarrow started her research and writing career 20 years ago—only after she was told she would have to start publishing if she wanted to get tenure at GGU.

“I’m so grateful for that admonishment,” she says. “I had to go deep. I started it, and then I got a nice grant to do more research, and now it’s the thing I do most. I live to know why. If you look at ‘the glass of Kit,’ it’s three-quarters ‘why.’ That’s the reason I’m a professor instead of a clinical psychologist.”

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02 Oct 2017

Using Objective Data to Improve Performance

Using Objective Data to Improve Performance

Psychologists are using biofeedback to help clients identify and change their physical responses to stress and more

When Denver sport and performance psychologist Steve Portenga, PhD, first started providing therapy to athletes, he taught them breathing and relaxation exercises to practice at home. But he often doubted whether the athletes were doing their homework correctly, if at all.

"I'd ask them how their relaxation went over the past week and was getting answers like, ‘Oh, yeah...right.'" he says. The replies left him thinking, "You didn't do it, did you?"

Then Portenga learned about biofeedback—a tool that provides empirical evidence of physiological activity, such as heart rate, breathing rate, muscle tension, skin temperature and brain wave patterns. Using sensors connected to displays, he and his clients could see how their bodies reacted to stress and to stress-reduction exercises. Athletes can also train with biofeedback apps at home and these sessions can be tracked, to see not only that they do their homework, but how well it works.

Portenga says he appreciates not just biofeedback's ability to provide accountability, but the way it has helped his athletes learn to handle competitive pressure. He has used the technique with athletes in every major professional sport, including at Super Bowls, world championships and the Olympics.

Biofeedback is an umbrella term covering several types of therapies. Common ones include heart-rate variability (HRV) biofeedback, which looks at the interval between heartbeats; electroencephalograph (EEG) biofeedback, also called neurofeedback, which focuses on brain wave activity; and electromyography biofeedback, which concentrates on muscle activity.

During biofeedback training, clients can see the response that's being measured while under simulated stress—such as by viewing a competition video or playing a challenging computer game. Biofeedback therapy holds that as people practice different responses to stress (slower breathing, for example), they can see how effective these are and adjust accordingly, which helps them learn how to better manage stress.

While large-scale research covering biofeedback's efficacy remains scant, studies have indicated biofeedback's potential in treating a variety of physical and psychological conditions. Research led by Poppy Schoenberg, PhD, now at the Vanderbilt University Osher Center for Integrative Medicine, examined 63 studies on various types of biofeedback used to treat psychiatric disorders. She found that about 81 percent of participants showed some level of improvement, with 65 percent demonstrating "statistically significant" symptom reduction (Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, 2014). A meta-analysis by Richard Gevitz, PhD, a health psychology professor at Alliant International University, examined HRV biofeedback's effectiveness in treating both psychological and physical disorders. Gevitz's review of more than 55 studies found that it shows promise in treating many disorders, including asthma, cardiovascular conditions, hypertension, depression, anxiety and insomnia, and has potential for improving performance (Biofeedback, 2013).

Today, Portenga, a founding member of APA's Coalition for the Psychology of High Performance, focuses his practice on adolescent athletes and nonathletes who may be faced with stressful situations that involve being judged or evaluated, including sports competitions and school tests. A session typically includes a mix of biofeedback and psychotherapy. As such, he says, he doesn't bill separately for biofeedback, in the same way a therapist wouldn't bill separately for mindfulness training. Portenga provides detailed invoices to clients to use for insurance filing, and is paid out-of-pocket by clients.

Portenga recommends clients use biofeedback apps at home—such as Respiroguide Pro—to help them visualize their breathing, like with an image of a ball rising with each inhalation and dropping with each exhalation. This helps clients adopt slower, synchronized breathing and heart rates to evoke a calmer state of mind, which is part of HRV biofeedback training. Over time, clients become accustomed to breathing at the slower rate and have less need to use apps, Portenga says. "To be able to track this to see what's going on, to see when things are progressing and when they're not, has just been fantastic."

Beyond stress management

Leah Lagos, PsyD, a performance psychologist in private practice in New York City, has been using biofeedback in her practice for about 10 years. She has used HRV biofeedback to help post-concussion syndrome patients alleviate headache, problems concentrating and other symptoms. She is working with New York University on a study exploring the use of HRV biofeedback with this syndrome, which she explains is linked to an injury to the autonomic nervous system. "I've treated over 100 athletes [with post-concussion syndrome] and they have very similar trajectories of experience: At week four their headaches dissipate, by week seven they can focus again," says Lagos.

She's also used biofeedback to help a patient end persistent vomiting after other medical interventions didn't work, and reduced incidence of migraines in other patients.

In addition, Lagos provides biofeedback to PGA tour golfers, dancers, Olympic rowers, soccer players, track athletes, basketball players and others. She typically meets patients once a week for about 10 weeks, with sessions lasting 45 minutes to an hour, during which time she uses biofeedback as well as cognitive-behavioral skills such as mindfulness training. She also insists clients do homework: two 20-minute sessions where they practice heart-rate variability using apps, such as Heartmath and Breath Pacer.

Biofeedback can also foster other benefits, says Lagos, including improved mood, reduced anxiety, lower muscle tension and improved attention.

While she doesn't accept insurance, she has had patients tell her that sometimes they are able to get insurance coverage for their biofeedback, particularly if they are being treated for headaches, she says. One of the aspects of this training that she most treasures, she says, "is seeing how it develops the patient's confidence."

Helping Olympians master their nerves

Lindsay Thornton, EdD, is a sport psychologist and a senior sport psychophysiologist at the U.S. Olympic Committee in Colorado Springs, Colorado, working with Olympic-bound athletes in sports such as track and field and swimming. "What I'm mainly working on is managing pressure, anxiety and stress around performance," Thornton says.

Thornton counsels athletes when needed, but the bulk of her work is helping athletes prepare to compete, which often entails using biofeedback. She claims that biofeedback can provide a "faster learning curve" for athletes to learn pressure-management skills.

"Sometimes in talk therapy, we can talk, talk, talk" without being able to change behaviors, she says. "But for me, using psychophysiology as a tool has been really powerful to teach athletes skills" in ways that would be difficult to do using words alone—with a sensor on the muscle, the client can visualize what's happening and see the impact of various exercises.

Thornton primarily uses HRV biofeedback and EEG biofeedback, also called neurofeedback, which focuses on brain waves. When Thornton first sees athletes, she does a "full-cap" assessment with 19 sensors on an athlete's head to allow her to see brain-wave patterns under different conditions. For example, she'll have athletes work on virtual tasks, which enables her to see their physiological responses to stress.

With neurofeedback, clients are able to see their brainwaves displayed and to differentiate between those that occur when they are stressed or losing concentration and those that happen when they are calm and focused. Through neurofeedback training, athletes learn to modify their brainwaves and states of mind, which helps improve performance, says Thornton.

"The goal of neurofeedback training is to create an awareness over what certain mental states feel like and then to develop strategies to recreate that state under pressure or in the face of distraction," she says.

Thornton creates routines for each athlete that are rehearsed repeatedly under simulated stress conditions. Athletes may practice pre-performance rituals, for instance, that can include visualizations of their performance, breathing exercises and use of code words associated with what they expect to do (an archer may say, "smooth, shoulder, through" to reinforce upcoming actions to take).

Thornton became attracted to biofeedback during her training in sport psychology. "I wasn't sure I was always doing the right things with athletes," she says. "We were talking about muscle relaxation and visualization. The athlete might believe they were doing it correctly and I might think they were doing it correctly, but I wanted some type of assurance that we were achieving our goal." Biofeedback helps provide that objective evidence, she says.

Olympic-level athletes are fascinated by peering inside their bodies—by seeing the responses her sensors display. "They enjoy that type of feedback," she says.

Thornton has her athletes practice outside her lab with apps such as Stress Doctor, which reinforces their heart-rate variability training. But she doesn't want her clients to rely on technology, pointing out that "they can't pull out their phone on the field." So, she gradually weans them from visual and auditory feedback to just audio to no feedback at all, using only their own now-heightened body awareness.

The payoff, she says, is seeing athletes master these strategies and witnessing "the pride and comfort and confidence they have." And when the hard work she and her athletes have put in results in Olympic medals, as happened in the 2016 Rio Olympics? "It's really exciting," says Thornton.

"No Insurance Required" is a Monitor series that explores practice niches that require no reimbursement from insurance companies. To read previous installments, go to www.apa.org/monitor/digital and search for "No Insurance Required."

For a more extensive look at the research on biofeedback, visit our digital edition at www.apa.org/monitor/digital and search for "Positive Feedback" in the March 2016 issue.

Resources

Biofeedback Certification International Alliance 
BCIA.org

The Association for Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback Inc. 
AAPB.org

By Lorna Collier


This article was originally published in the June 2017 Monitor on Psychology

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29 Sep 2017

How Did You Get That Job? A Q&A with Sports Psychologist Dr. Nyaka NiiLampti

The knowledge, skills and experience gained through your psychology training can transfer successfully to a variety of jobs. Dr. Nyaka NiiLampti is the director of player wellness for the NFL Players Association (NFLPA), the union for professional football players. In her role, NiiLampti ensures that players are educated about the NFL’s policies for substance abuse, and provides education, resources and guidance to players in multiple areas of wellness, including mental health support.

Learn how you can apply your psychology education in a similar career path.

Nyaka NiiLamptiSpeaker:
Dr. Nyaka NiiLampti is a sports psychologist with over 15 years of experience in the field. A collegiate athlete, her senior thesis explored the psychological impacts of sports on women. She holds an M.A. in exercise and sport science (sport psychology) and a Ph.D. in counseling psychology. Before joining the NFLPA, NiiLampti worked in college counseling centers and a large group private practice, and was an assistant professor of psychology at Queens University of Charlotte in North Carolina.


Garth Fowler, PhDHost:
Garth A. Fowler, PhD, is an Associate Executive Director for Education, and the Director of the Office for Graduate and Postgraduate Education and Training at APA. He leads the Directorate’s efforts to develop resources, guidelines, and policies that promote and enhance disciplinary education and training in psychology at the graduate and postdoctoral level.

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27 Sep 2017

Coping with Challenging Clients

Coping with Challenging Clients

What to do with clients who yell at you, question your competence or just sit silently seething

Even though Seattle-area private practitioner Kirk Honda, PsyD, had been a psychotherapist for 15 years, it only took a hostile client a few minutes to make him question his own competence.

He was working with two parents and their daughter, when the father started attacking Honda, making hostile comments about his abilities as a therapist. The daughter soon joined in. "Within 15 minutes, they had completely torn apart my self-esteem," says Honda, who chairs the couple and family therapy program at Antioch University in Seattle. "I started having a mini anxiety attack. I started to sweat. I couldn't think straight. I almost ran out of the office."

Although the mother stepped in to defend Honda and they eventually repaired their therapeutic relationship, the experience left him shaken. He's not alone. Psychologists sometimes face clients who have personality disorders that prompt them to lash out, for example. Other clients may just be rude. Some — whether they're in court-mandated treatment or pushed into therapy by spouses or parents — just don't want to be in therapy. Challenging clients aren't just a problem for clinical and counseling psychologists, either. Forensic psychologists, such as those working as postdivorce parenting coordinators, can also face hostility.

Responding the wrong way — whether by pushing back at the client or withdrawing — can derail the client's progress, say Honda and others. But, they add, there are ways to use uncomfortable interactions to actually improve treatment.

How can psychologists respond effectively to challenging clients? Here's advice from practitioners who have eased stressful encounters with their clients:

Calm yourself. When faced with a challenging client or situation, you don't want to escalate the situation by reacting to it in kind, says Honda. Instead of fighting back, be aware of your emotional and physical state, such as a racing heart, surging adrenaline, confusion and dread, he says. When the father and daughter started yelling at him, for example, Honda put his head in his hands and asked them to stop talking for a few minutes so he could calm down. Without that time out, he says, "I knew I wasn't going to be able to be constructive."

Mindfulness meditation can help psychologists prepare for the anxiety, frustration and anger that challenging clients provoke, says psychologist Mitch Abblett, PhD, executive director of the Institute for Meditation and Psychotherapy in Boston. Through daily practice of mindfulness, clinicians can learn to notice sensations arising in the body and thoughts arising in the mind without judgment. They can also keep in mind the core values that undergird therapy. "If you connect with those values, it can pull you through some of these charged moments," says Abblett.

Express empathy. Don't argue or make excuses, says Honda. Instead, validate the client's feelings by saying, "You're angry with me because …." and asking "Am I hearing you right?" And even if it doesn't feel fair, says Honda, apologize, telling the client you're sorry that something you did has made them angry or that they feel you're not competent to provide the services they need. "That can not only help de-escalate the situation, but can also further the ultimate goal of providing therapy," he says.

But keep in mind that expressing empathy has to be done right or challenging clients may see it as phony, says Stanley L. Brodsky, PhD, a professor emeritus of psychology at the University of Alabama in Tuscaloosa, who also has a private practice. "Difficult, suspicious clients may be put off by expressions of empathy," he says. "One has to earn the right to be empathic with such clients and to avoid clichéd expressions."

Compassion for the client should also be accompanied by consequences, adds Abblett. "This is not a rainbows-and-unicorns passive approach," he says. Acknowledge the emotion that is driving the client's behavior, then emphasize that it's not acceptable for him or her to make threats or swear, refuse to pay for services or simply not show up, he says.

Reframe resistance. "Some clients say they really want to change, then fight every inch of the way to make sure they don't," says Fred J. Hanna, PhD, who directs the counselor education and supervision program at Adler University in Chicago and is also a faculty associate at Johns Hopkins University. But don't resist resistance, says Hanna. "When the client is resisting the therapist and the therapist starts getting irritated with the client, then you have two people resisting each other," he says. "That's not therapy; that's called war." Instead, suggests Hanna, praise the client's resistance. "I say, 'If you worked as hard to make your life better as you do to make sure nothing changes, you could be extraordinarily successful,'" he says. If a client curses at him, Hanna expresses his admiration for the client standing up for him- or herself. Doing so, he says, helps clients see that their therapists understand them.

At least rudeness gives you something to work with, adds Brodsky. Say a client attacks the way a psychologist looks. Don't react negatively, Brodsky says. Instead, encourage the client to say more about why you're so unattractive. "Once you do that, you're actually talking," says Brodsky. Plus, if clients are rude with therapists, they're often rude with others in their lives. "It lets you explore what they've done to put off other people," says Brodsky.

Cultivate patience. Psychologists should strive to be patient not only with challenging clients, but also with themselves, says Sarah A. Schnitker, PhD, an associate professor of psychology at Fuller Theological Seminary in Pasadena, California. Her research has uncovered two strategies that can help psychologists cultivate more patience. One is loving-kindness meditation, in which practitioners direct well wishes to themselves, friends and family, even their enemies. The other strategy is re-appraisal, or thinking about situations in new ways. If a client is frustrating you, remember the bigger picture — that therapy is helping to bear the burden of another person's pain, says Schnitker. "You might think, 'This is helping to test me as a clinician' or 'This is helping me develop patience, a virtue I can use in my own life.'"

Seek support from your peers. Psychologists can feel a lot of shame when they're having trouble with clients, says Honda. "A big reason for that is because people don't talk enough about their difficulties," he says. "They think they're the only ones." Sharing tales of challenging clients with other mental health professionals — while respecting confidentiality — can not only help end that isolation but also lead to constructive suggestions about how to deal with such challenges.

It can also be helpful to get a second opinion by consulting on specific cases with colleagues who are "outside the fray," says Matthew J. Sullivan, PhD, a private practitioner in Palo Alto, California. "You can touch base with them when you're feeling rattled or insecure about something you've done," he says. Even a quick phone call with a colleague can help.

Consider terminating the relationship. Clients who think a psychologist is terrible at his or her job have every right to question credentials, challenge therapeutic decisions or even decide to end the relationship, says Honda. Sometimes, he says, "it just isn't a good match."

It's also OK for a psychologist to end the relationship, says Abblett. "I talk about how it seems like we're not on the same page about our expectations of the work and our mutual responsibilities," he says. Abblett outlines what he believes his own responsibilities are toward a client, then asks the client if he's meeting them. He then tells the client what he needs from him or her. "If that can't happen, we may need to talk about a referral to someone else," says Abblett.

Additional reading

Patience and Self-Renewal 
Schnitker, S.A., Blews, A.E., & Foss, J.A. 
In the book: Clinician's Guide to Self-renewal: Essential Advice from the Field, 2014

Strategies for Working with Difficult Clients 
Sullivan, M.J. In the book: Parenting Coordination in Post-Separation Disputes: A Comprehensive Guide for Practitioners, 2014

The Heat of the Moment in Treatment: Mindful Management of Difficult Clients 
Abblett, M., 2013

Treating Reluctant and Involuntary Clients 
Brodsky, S.L., &, Titcomb, C.R. In Psychologist's Desk Reference: Third Edition, 2013

By Rebecca A. Clay


This article was originally published in the July/August 2017  Monitor on Psychology

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22 Sep 2017

Open Opportunities to do Collaborative Research

Open Opportunities to do Collaborative Research

Psychologists can find rewarding opportunities to work with other disciplines within NIH's major research initiatives

The National Institutes of Health is the world's biggest public funder of biomedical research, investing more than $32 billion each year—and a sizable amount of that money can be tapped by mental health and behavioral science researchers, especially those who are interested in collaborating with other disciplines.

Several major initiatives welcome a transdisciplinary perspective, even if on the surface they don't sound terribly psychological. Among them are the All of Us/Precision Medicine Initiative, the Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies (BRAIN) Initiative, Environmental influences on Child Health Outcomes (ECHO) and the Big Data to Knowledge (BD2K) program.

"There are lots of opportunities, if the medical side becomes aware of the skills and content knowledge we psychologists have," says psychologist Leonard Bickman, PhD, a research professor of psychology at Vanderbilt University.

His research, focusing on how to encourage people to participate in clinical trials, receives funding from the NIH Clinical Translational Science Awards Program through Vanderbilt University Medical Center's Recruitment Innovation Center.

"If you're interested in applying theory, it's a wonderful world to work in," he says.

High-impact science

Among the initiatives where psychologists are finding opportunities is the All of Us program, which offered $55 million in awards in fiscal year 2016 to build the partnerships and infrastructure to get the program off the ground. All of Us is recruiting its million-plus participants and plans to release funding announcements once the project is launched. Those participants, representing a diversity of ages, races and backgrounds, will share biological samples, genetic data, lifestyle information and health records. Ultimately, those data will help researchers advance a more personalized approach to medicine by identifying biological markers for disease, identifying why people respond differently to medications, developing new ways to measure disease risk and creating a platform to test new targeted therapies.

The project will also collect large amounts of data on factors relevant to psychology, including stress, mood states, health risk behaviors and family and social network dynamics, says William Riley, PhD, director of the Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research at NIH.

"As this builds up to over a million participants, there will be a lot of opportunities for behavioral and social scientists to access those data. They'll also be able to apply to add other variables of interest to them," he says. "The longitudinal nature and sheer size of the sample will make a big difference for behavioral research."

Another important initiative for psychology research will be the BRAIN initiative, Riley says. BRAIN began funding researchers in 2014 and continues to accept new applications, awarding more than $70 million to research teams at 60 institutions in fiscal year 2016. The first stages of the project have mostly been focused on building tools that enable scientists to map the connectivity and circuitry of the brain.

"But all of that work is ultimately to understand behavior," Riley says. "As we move into the next five years, the goal will be to take some of those tools and map that circuitry onto specific behaviors. I expect we'll be seeing even more things coming out of BRAIN that have increasing relevance to psychology."

Sterling Johnson, PhD, a clinical neuropsychologist at the University of Wisconsin–Madison, has funding from BRAIN for a project that aims to develop better methods to detect small but meaningful structural changes in the brains of healthy adults that could predict the onset of Alzheimer's disease. He's also funded through the large BD2K initiative for another project that applies computational neuroscience to Alzheimer's disease. Launched in 2012, BD2K aims to develop tools to integrate data science and vast data sets (often called "Big Data") with biomedical research.

Those projects are succeeding thanks to the close collaboration between the Wisconsin Alzheimer's Disease Research Center and the University of Wisconsin's Department of Computer Science, he says. "This kind of research is much more powerful when you can do it in a multidisciplinary way," he says. "It's not a new concept to do team science, but initiatives like BRAIN really incentivize thinking about a problem from multiple angles, and really allow for high-impact science."

Speak a common language

Leslie Leve, PhD, who trained as a developmental psychologist and is now a professor in the College of Education at the University of Oregon, is also beginning to reap the benefits of transdisciplinary research, thanks to her work with Environmental influences on Child Health Outcomes (ECHO). Launched in 2016 with $157 million in awards, the seven-year initiative will study the effects of a broad range of early environmental influences on child health and development. 

The program was a perfect fit for Leve, who for more than a decade has followed birth and adoptive families in an effort to separate the effects of genes and parenting on child development. Under a new grant from ECHO, Leve and her colleagues will enroll new children to build upon their existing data.

In the process, she's collaborating with psychologists, physicians, psychiatrists, social workers, geneticists and environmental scientists. "Everyone is coming from different philosophical backgrounds. In the end, that produces really novel, innovative science," she says.

Yet it can be challenging, too. Openness to ideas and willingness to learn from others is key to succeeding, Leve says. "We're learning to speak a common language and find the best way forward. You have to be willing to hear other perspectives, other paradigms and consider them in your research methodology."

It's not the right path for everyone. In addition to good communication and willingness to learn, thriving in this space requires patience, Bickman says. "It's so much easier to run a study with college students, hand out a questionnaire and be done in a semester. These large-scale projects often don't bear any fruit for years," he says. "It's a very different career path, and it has to be considered carefully." But for the right personality, the rewards can be significant, he adds.

Interested in diving in? Riley, Johnson and Leve all recommend starting by learning the basics of other fields relevant to your research interests. Read up on basic genetics. Learn to use electronic health records. Talk to computer scientists and learn their lingo. "Do some initial work to set yourself up to be competitive for a project like this," Riley says.

You probably don't have to go far to make those connections, Leve adds. "It's a tight-knit science world. Most likely, I know somebody who knows somebody who's an expert in a particular discipline, whether at my own institution or elsewhere."

She recommends building those connections in natural ways, by collaborating on a paper or sharing a draft of a grant you're working on to get the perspective of someone from a different field. "Those things can provide a really good training ground for this kind of experience," she says.

Ultimately, if you want to be a part of a major research initiative, you have to be willing to look beyond the traditional boundaries of psychology to collaborate and innovate in bold new ways, says Johnson. "It's hard to get funded by NIH these days doing individual lab research. NIH is looking for high-impact science that's really going to move the needle," he says. "They're looking for things with clear translational relevance that are going to make the world a better place."

Resources

All of Us Research Program
www.nih.gov/research-training/allofus-research-program

The BRAIN Initiative
www.braininitiative.nih.gov/index.htm

Environmental influences on Child Health Outcomes Program
www.nih.gov/echo

Big Data to Knowledge
https://datascience.nih.gov/bd2k

By Kirsten Weir


This article was originally published in the June 2017 Monitor on Psychology

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22 Sep 2017

Women Outnumber Men in Psychology, but Not in the Field’s Top Echelons

Women Outnumber Men in Psychology, but Not in the Field’s Top Echelons

A new APA report recommends ways to boost women's status and pay

Even as women have come to dominate psychology in terms of numbers within the educational pipeline, workforce and APA, they continue to lack equity with their male colleagues when it comes to money, power and status, according to a new report from APA's Committee on Women in Psychology (CWP).

"The Changing Gender Composition of Psychology: Update and Expansion of the 1995 Task Force Report" reviews the data and offers recommendations in such areas as education and training, employment and professional activities.

What's most surprising about the findings is how little has changed in the more than two decades since the first report, says lead author Ruth Fassinger, PhD.

While female psychologists have made gains in some areas, they have seen increasing disparities in other areas, such as salaries (see chart), which the report suggests could be partly due to the influx of young women joining the workforce for the first time.

"Women [in psychology] are still experiencing inequity," says Fassinger, a professor emerita at the University of Maryland's College of Education. "You see it everywhere: in training, in the jobs that women have and the patterns of workforce participation, and in APA itself."

Pervasive inequities

Drawing on data from APA's Center for Workforce Studies (CWS) and a literature review and analysis Fassinger conducted as a visiting scholar at APA, the report notes the dramatic growth of women's representation within psychology that began in the 1970s and 1980s. Take psychology education. Of the 70,311 students enrolled in psychology graduate programs in 2014, according to CWS data, 75 percent were women. And up to 80 percent of students in training programs focused on health service provision are women. But by the time they finish their training, the report notes, female doctoral students are already at a disadvantage, with significantly higher debt levels than their male peers, according to a CWS analysis of pooled data from 1997 to 2009.

Unequal Pay Continues

As women psychologists enter the workforce, they encounter lower salaries than men regardless of subfield. The average wage gap in starting salaries for recent doctoral grads is almost $20,000, the report points out, citing National Science Foundation (NSF) data from 2010.

One bright spot is jobs at government agencies, where women psychologists predominate and the wage gap is much smaller than in other settings. According to the NSF data, women with psychology PhDs who were working in government in 2010 made almost 92 percent of what their male counterparts made. But even that sector has seen a drop in equity along with other sectors; in 1993, women's government salaries were 94 percent of men's.

"The fact that women are accruing greater debt yet are being paid less is alarming," says Alette Coble-Temple, PsyD, chair of APA's CWP and a professor of clinical psychology at John F. Kennedy University in Pleasant Hill, California. Women who are ethnic and racial minorities and women with disabilities can face even greater disparities, she adds. Minority students finish their doctoral training with significantly more debt than white students, for example. The difference is especially pronounced among PsyD students, the report notes, citing data from 1997 to 2009 that show an average $95,000 debt for minority PsyD recipients versus $84,000 for white PsyD recipients.

Women in academia face particular challenges, the report emphasizes. It typically takes women a year longer to achieve tenure than men, for example. And even though women are flooding into the discipline, they are still underrepresented as associate professors, full professors and institutional leaders.

According to CWS data, 46 percent of all male psychology faculty in the academic year 2013–14 were full professors compared with 28 percent of female faculty, for instance. Just 16 percent of male academics were assistant professors compared with almost 28 percent of female academics. Women were also overrepresented among adjunct, nontenure-track lecturer and other temporary positions, with almost 17 percent of female faculty in these roles compared with 11 percent of male faculty. These patterns have held steady over the last two decades despite the influx of women into psychology departments.

The inequities play out within APA itself. Women now make up 58 percent of APA's membership and hold more than half of governance positions. Yet women are underrepresented when it comes to the association's top honors, participation in divisions and editorial roles. While 40 percent of those involved in the review process of APA journals are women, for instance, most are ad hoc reviewers. Just 18 percent of editors of APA journals are women.

The report acknowledges that women's choices account for some of the disparities. Women are more likely to seek PsyDs, for instance, and graduates of these programs accumulate almost twice as much debt as those of PhD programs. In addition, women practitioners are more likely to work part time, limiting their income. But, says Fassinger, these choices must be viewed within a sociocultural context that constrains women's options. "It's almost impossible to talk about things as free choice when you have all this socialization that propels people into certain directions," she says, noting that women may choose part-time work because of child-rearing obligations.

To address the disparity, the Committee on Women in Psychology recommends in the report that APA work to raise awareness and advocate for equity, pushing policies that encourage salary transparency and monitoring progress.

The report also calls for researching students' decision-making processes and interventions that could influence their decisions, such as making students at all levels aware of the wide range of meaningful careers beyond health service provision so that they can take advantage of other employment sectors where there are opportunities. Other recommendations include continuing to advocate for federal funding for trainees and early career psychologists, creating a task force to identify barriers to advancement within academia, and facilitating more mentorship for women.

The report should spur research exploring the factors that make psychology careers less attractive to men, says Paola Michelle Contreras, PsyD, of APA's CWP and an assistant professor of counseling at William James College in Newton, Massachusetts. "This is a good take-off point to get more data and learn more about the nuances," she says.

To read the full report, visit www.apa.org/women/programs/gender-composition/index.aspx.

By Rebecca A. Clay


This article was originally published in the July/August 2017 Monitor on Psychology

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