14 Aug 2017

Ethical Issues in Mentoring Relationships

Decades of research indicates that mentorships lead to significant positive career and personal outcomes for mentees.  But mentoring relationships are also interpersonally complex, fluid, ever evolving, and sometimes dysfunctional.  This workshop addresses some of the most salient and consistent ethical challenges and tensions for mentors in any organization or context.  Mentoring relationships are framed as fiduciary relationships in which mentors own a fundamental obligation to avoid harm to the mentee and to promote the mentee’s best interests whenever possible.  Utilizing a mentoring Code of Ethics and ethics vignettes, this workshop emphasizes the values, attitudes, and behaviors of ethically conscientious mentors.

Learning Objective
Describe at least 5 of the principles bearing on ethical mentorship.

*This program does not offer CE credit.

W. Brad Johnson, PhDPresenter
W. Brad Johnson is Professor of psychology in the Department of Leadership, Ethics and Law at the United States Naval Academy, and a Faculty Associate in the Graduate School of Education at Johns Hopkins University. A clinical psychologist Dr. Johnson is a fellow of the American Psychological Association and recipient of the Johns Hopkins University Teaching Excellence Award. Dr. Johnson is the author of numerous publications including 13 books, in the areas of mentoring, professional ethics, and counseling. His most recent book is: Athena Rising: How and Why Men Should Mentor Women (2016, with David Smith).

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25 Jul 2017

How Did You Get That Job? A Q&A with Consultant Dr. Melanie Kinser

The knowledge, skills and experience gained through your psychology training can successfully transfer to a variety of jobs. As a consultant, Melanie Kinser, PhD, leverages her understanding of psychology and business to help leaders and safety professionals strengthen organizational culture and in turn, strengthen their bottom line. Learn how you can apply your psychology education to a similar career path.

Melanie Kinser, PhDSpeaker:
Melanie Kinser, PhD, focuses on translating complex topics into practical strategies that are realistic for her client's demanding work environments. Her clients include Fortune 500's, startups, and non-profits. She has partnered with organizations in the US, Canada and Australia in industries such as Technology, Healthcare, Energy, Pipeline Construction, Manufacturing, Higher Education and Nuclear. She has a Master’s and Doctorate in School Psychology from the University of Missouri. Dr. Kinser has published articles on organizational change and leadership development as well as presenting at several national conferences.

Garth Fowler, PhDHost:

Garth A. Fowler, PhD, is an Associate Executive Director for Education, and the Director of the Office for Graduate and Postgraduate Education and Training at APA. He leads the Directorate’s efforts to develop resources, guidelines, and policies that promote and enhance disciplinary education and training in psychology at the graduate and postdoctoral level.

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12 Jul 2017

How to Create an Investment Strategy Early in Your Career

How to Create an Investment Strategy Early in Your Career

One of the most intimidating aspects of personal finance when you are just starting out in your career or beginning to get ahead is choosing an investment strategy that works. Unfortunately, we are all bombarded with "get rich quick" investment products and messages on almost a daily basis. It muddies the water and distracts from the reality that building wealth is a process that just doesn't come easily.

No matter what path you choose in investing or what anyone else tells you, the ultimate factor is time. You want your money to be subjected to the incredible force of compounding interest for as many years as possible.

What you choose as the vehicle to build your wealth is up to you, and honestly there are a lot of ways to do it. In our last investing article, we detailed some of the most basic investment terms and vehicles to create a foundation to build on.

This article is going to dive into the actual process of picking a strategy that works the best for your career and life.

Here are four important factors to consider while choosing an investment strategy:

1) What are your goals?

Just a few decades ago, the biggest reason for the average person to invest was pretty simple. You worked for a set amount of years while putting money into investment accounts, with the hope that you would be able to retire at the end of your career and live off of your various investments.

Today, things have changed drastically. Millennials in particular are rewriting the definition of what retirement actually means. Young people are wanting to retire earlier, work less and enjoy their families more, and also are willing to cut back on lifestyle costs to put more money away.

So, before you decide anything, you need to look at your life and career and decide what you want it to look like.

Do you want to retire early? Then you'll need to grow your retirement accounts as aggressively as possible and make sure your money isn't locked up in IRAs until you are 59 1/2.

If you want to take the traditional route, there are a range of investment options available to you. Your biggest goal would be to make sure you maximize your returns over time and make educated guesses on when you think you'll realistically want to retire.

2) See what options are readily available first

Of course, before you jump into any type of plan to build wealth through investing, you need to fully understand what options are available to you through your career path.

Does your company have an attractive 401(k) match? If so — that's essentially free money that you'll want to max out first before applying investment funds elsewhere. Also, how limited are the investment options within that 401(k)?

You might be working with a company that has an annuity-based retirement system, where you have no control over the funds that you contribute to retirement every month. If that's the case — there's a good chance that you'll want to supplement your retirement plan with an IRA that allows you to buy ETFs (exchange-traded funds), mutual funds, or individual stocks and bonds as you please.

If you're self-employed, you really have a wide range of options depending on your business income. The best strategy here would be to hire a great accountant that can guide you on what type of account(s) will work best to keep your taxable income low.

How much debt do you have? It's no secret that getting a degree in the mental health profession isn't cheap. Many mental health professionals have high student loan debt loads. When you are deciding what to do with money that you've set aside for investing, how do you know that you shouldn't apply it to your debt instead?

The answer is fairly simple: What's the interest rate on your loans?

If you have a higher interest rate at 6% or more, you might want to consider putting your money there first. Any time you pay off higher interest debt, you are keeping a lot of money that would have gone to interest in your pocket. So, paying off your debt is almost a guaranteed return.

If you look at stock market average returns over history, they have averaged anywhere from 7–12% (depending on the source you're reading). If you feel confident that you will outperform your student loan interest rate in the market, you might want to put your money there.

Just understand — investing is never guaranteed and there is a risk of losing your money, so make sure you take that into consideration when dealing with the debt vs. investing question.

3) Taxes have a huge impact!

Taxes are rarely on people's minds at the beginning of their careers, but if you ignore them, they can eat a hole into your investment returns.

That's why it's typically a good idea to use a "tax advantaged" investing strategy. Most commonly, that means putting money into designated retirement accounts like a Roth or Traditional IRA.

Very quickly, here's the difference between those two popular IRA choices:

Roth IRA: Money is taxed at your current income tax rate when you contribute money to the account, and then grows tax free until you take the money out at retirement.

Traditional IRA: Money is not taxed when you contribute to the account, but when you take it out at retirement it will be taxed at whatever tax bracket you fall into later down the road.

Why is this important? It has a ton to do with your investment strategy! When you are young, you generally are in a lower tax bracket, so the investment funds may be better served in a Roth IRA. That means that those funds will be taxed at a lower rate and then grow over the course of your career tax free.

If you opt for a traditional IRA, you are essentially betting that your tax bracket will be lower in the future than it is now.

It's always important to consult with a tax professional when making these choices, but know that even the best accountant can't predict future tax rates. You'll have to make the best informed decision you can and hope for the best.

4) Are you paying too much in fees?

You need to be aware that fees can eat away at your returns over time in a drastic way.

Every time you make a trade in your investment account, you'll have to pay a commission. Those $4 to $7 dollar fees might seem small, but they can slowly pile up to a huge amount over 30-plus years of investing. Buying and selling too often and based on impulse within your accounts is a good way to lose a large sum of money over time.

There are also management fees to consider. Mutual funds in particular are often packed with fees that you may not even know about, and your investments will suffer over the long term.

The popular personal finance site NerdWallet recently conducted a study that showed even a 1% fee could cost a young investor up to $590,000 over a 40-year investment period.

Bottom line—pay attention to the fees.

5) Do you want income, or growth?

This is a huge debate in the personal finance world right now. Buying dividend-producing stocks is a popular investment strategy because particular equities with a high-dividend yield (or amount paid to you quarterly in the form of cash) can essentially produce a passive income. That sounds great, right?

The rub is that historically, dividend stocks don't produce quite as much growth as other equities that don't pay a dividend.  Some argue that while dividend income is nice, they would much rather own companies that reinvest those potential dividends back into the company so it can grow larger and more valuable (and in turn make your stock more valuable).

Like everything in investing, there isn't necessarily a "right" answer. Everything is based on your financial goals and what you are most comfortable investing in and understand the most.

Finally and above all else—never invest in a vehicle that you don't fully understand. You can create all of the goals and strategies that you'd like, but if you don't know what you're actually buying with your investment funds, you're probably going to lose money.

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11 Jul 2017

Leadership and Communication

In one of his published articles, communication expert John A. Kline said, “If you can’t communicate, don’t try to lead.” But what is effective communication? Effective communication is more than just speaking or writing effectively; effective communication is simply the effective sharing of meaning. And no communication skill is more important than listening. Knowing the basic barriers and shortfalls of communication and doing something about them is a big step in improving our ability to communicate effectively. Kline shares basic insights and real life stories about his lifelong quest to become a better communicator.

Learning Objective
Apply skills that improve my communication skills.

John Kline, PhDPresenter
John A. Kline, (PhD, Iowa 1970) was a college professor, then from 1975-2000 the Air Force expert in Communication and Leadership. In 1986 he achieved Civilian (SES) status equivalent to a two-star general. From 1991 until 2000 he was the Air University Provost with responsibility for faculty, academic programs, libraries, technology, budget and support of 50,000 resident and 150,000 distance-learning students annually. Kline has written several books and many published articles, and is now the Distinguished Professor of Leadership and Director of the Troy University Institute for Leadership Development. He focuses on servant leadership and seeks to make a positive difference in the lives of others.

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06 Jul 2017

Improving Practice Delivery Series

Improving Practice Delivery Series

From the solo practice to the large group practice, whether for profit or not-for-profit, the concepts presented in this series can help strengthen the organization in which services are delivered. *This series is eligible for CE credit. Earn 1 CE credit for each session.

The four 90-minute programs focus on:

How to Create and Implement a Vision for Your Practice

Learn about creating an over-arching vision for your practice and how to use it to guide both clinical and practice/administrative decisions.

Managing Staff and Organizations in Support of Practice Excellence

Learn how to promote excellence in service delivery via employment contracts, policies and procedures, and mentoring to advance staff development.

Expanding the Scope of Your Practice to Address the Needs of the Community

Keep your practice relevant by positioning it to meet the changing needs of the community you serve.

Practice Health Metrics

Keep your practice thriving and growing by tracking your basic metrics (accounts receivables, referral patterns, productivity, etc.), thus assuring the overall health of the practice for the future.

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05 Jul 2017

A Collection of Basic Experimental Psychology Articles Booklet

A Collection of Basic Experimental Psychology Articles Booklet
This booklet, A Collection of Basic Experimental Psychology Articles, features articles on some timely topics, including how the Internet inflates people’s estimates of their own knowledge and how mobile technology can be used to crowd source data collection for psychological research.
 
If you enjoy these articles, don’t stop here. APA’s Journals Program maintains a database of hundreds of papers on basic experimental psychology. And as an APA member, you enjoy highly discounted access that enables you to explore these and other research topics online at www.apa.org/pubs/journals.

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30 Jun 2017

A Collection of Core Psychology Articles Booklet

A Collection of Core Psychology Articles Booklet

This booklet, A Collection of Core Psychology Articles from APA’s publishing office, drills down into some of the most fascinating topics in the field, from personality disorders to youth violence and homelessness.

If you enjoy these articles, don’t stop here. APA’s Journals Program maintains a database of hundreds of papers on core psychology. And as an APA member, you enjoy highly discounted access that enables you to explore these and other research topics online at www.apa.org/pubs/journals.

 

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27 Jun 2017

Cultural Competence is Key

Cultural Competence is Key

When working with refugees or asylum-seekers, something as seemingly straightforward as greeting new patients with a handshake can compromise trust, says psychologist Rehman Abdulrehman, PhD, co-author of an online guide called "Working with Refugees from Syria and Surrounding Middle Eastern Countries," published by the Public Mental Health Initiative he directs.

"Some Muslims believe that any kind of cross-gender contact is disrespectful," says Abdulrehman, an assistant professor of clinical health psychology at the University of Manitoba and a member of APA's Committee on International Relations in Psychology. Let Muslim patients make the first move, he suggests. If they don't offer their hands, you could put your hand over your heart and nod instead.

Noting that most psychologists don't get training in working with refugees, asylum-seekers and asylees, Abdulrehman and others offer several tips for working with those who have fled their homelands:

Learn about patients' contexts. You'll need to learn about your patients' culture, religion and other factors, says Abdulrehman. Without that insight, it can be easy to mistake normal activities for pathologies, such as mistaking Muslims' pre-prayer washing ritual for obsessive-compulsive disorder. Build competence by reaching out to members of the particular community, he suggests. In addition, be sure to understand the sociopolitical context of the country people have fled as well as the country where they've resettled, says Rita Chi-Ying Chung, PhD, a professor of counseling and development at George Mason University who has worked with nongovernmental organizations to serve refugees. Also, find out about laws affecting refugees, the asylum process, family reunification policies and how to connect patients to medical, legal and social services, she says.

Emphasize trust building. Seeking help from a psychologist is not something many refugees and asylum-seekers are comfortable with. "The notion of coming to a stranger you've never met and spilling out your most embarrassing, shameful secrets is very foreign," says Adeyinka Akinsulure-Smith, PhD, a senior supervising psychologist at the Bellevue/New York University Program for Survivors of Torture. Chung agrees. When she goes into a refugee community, she doesn't want to be seen as an expert. Many refugees come from countries where psychologists could be seen as part of the government and intake questions seen as disturbingly intrusive. "They might perceive it as, ‘Oh, my gosh, I might suddenly disappear the next day,'" says Chung. Instead, she asks community leaders how she can help, then engages in active listening while working with people on everyday tasks. "I might be working with women in the kitchen, with difficult topics coming up," she says.

Focus on symptoms. Some refugees and asylum-seekers, especially Muslims, come from countries where talking about feelings isn't as accepted as it is here, says Abdulrehman. That's why he uses cognitive-behavioral therapy with his Muslim clients. In addition to focusing on symptoms, cognitive-behavioral therapy also has a practical, solutions-oriented approach that helps restore clients' sense of control over their lives, he says.

Build strong relationships with professional interpreters. Bringing another person into the therapy session introduces potential new complications, says Akinsulure-Smith. The patient may worry about confidentiality; an interpreter from the same country may have their own issues when hearing about the patient's experiences. Spend some time with the interpreter before the session, be clear that you expect word-for-word translation and debrief afterward, she suggests.

By Rebecca Clay


This article was originally published in the January 2017 Monitor on Psychology

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27 Jun 2017

Work-life Balance Still a Struggle for Most Psychologists

Work-life Balance Still a Struggle for Most Psychologists

When Pamela Hays, PhD, began her psychology career, she tried to do it all: clinical work, writing, research and teaching. But she couldn't sustain it. After a decade of going full tilt, she developed neck problems and carpal tunnel syndrome so severe she had to start using a voice-activated computer system.

"I was driven," she says. "But I drove myself into health problems I couldn't ignore anymore."

Hays, now a clinical psychologist practicing in Soldotna, Alaska, might be an extreme case. Or maybe not. Work-life balance is something that many psychologists struggle with.

The unfortunate irony is that psychologists know better than anyone the importance of making time for self-care. "We talk about it a lot with patients, but we don't practice what we preach," says Chelsi Day, PsyD, a behavioral health provider at Windrose Health Network in Indianapolis.

Psychologists might even have a false sense of invulnerability, says John F. Christensen, PhD, a psychologist in Corbett, Oregon, and past co-chair of the APA Advisory Committee on Colleague Assistance (ACCA). "We study burnout and think that applies to the people we're trying to help," he says. "In fact, health is on a continuum, with well-being at one end and burnout at the other. And most of us, during a professional career, slide back and forth on that continuum depending on what's going on in our lives."

Finding balance, however, is easier said than done. "The sin of the early 21st century is being nonproductive," Christensen says. "We're conditioned by our culture to equate value with productivity."

Of course, as psychologists well know, no one is as productive as they can be when they are exhausted and overworked. Burnout is a legitimate phenomenon, marked by feelings of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and a diminished sense of accomplishment. "When we move into burnout, we get impatient, we treat others as objects, and we start treating ourselves as task-processing machines," Christensen says. "Our empathy tank has run dry."

For psychologists in clinical practice, neglecting well-being can even impair professional competence, making the matter an ethical concern. As Erica H. Wise, PhD, a psychologist at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and current co-chair of the ACCA, argues in a recent article, it's much harder to stay competent when you're burned out. "Competence … is an essential ethical obligation and provides a critical link between ethics and self-care," Wise and her colleagues conclude (Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 2012).

Practical balance

Unfortunately, there's no one-size-fits-all strategy for achieving personal-professional equilibrium. Stressors and obligations are different for everyone, and they also change over the course of an individual's life. "It is important for psychologists to stay attuned to these issues throughout their professional life span, since personal and work-related stressors tend to shift over time," Wise says. "Work-life balance isn't a once-and-done thing."

Some people start by establishing a career with some balance built in. Day, a sport psychologist, recently decided not to pursue an opportunity that she described as a dream job — building a counseling and sport psychology center at a Big 10 school. Although the opportunity thrilled her, after she factored in the long commute, the fact that she'd be on call 24 hours a day and her desire for personal and family time, the job didn't sound quite so dreamy. "Work-life balance is important to me," she says. "I don't want to burn out in 10 years."

After working herself into physical health problems, Hays left academia and moved back to her home state of Alaska to start a clinical practice. She joined a yoga class and a book group, started spending more time with family, and wrote the 2014 book "Creating Well-Being: Four Steps to a Happier, Healthier Life."

But finding balance doesn't necessarily mean you have to change jobs (or move to Alaska). You can start by taking a critical look at your commitments.

Wise recommends doing either formal or informal self-care assessments, which can remind you of your goals and help you figure out which daily activities energize you — and which feel like a slog. "From that, you have critical information that you can factor into your choices about your personal and professional activities," she says.

Jim Davies, PhD, a faculty member at Carleton University in Ottawa, says that for him and many of his colleagues, a lot of work commitments are self-imposed. "They are projects we are passionate about and take on whether we have the time to commit to them or not," he says. "We're too busy because we're overcommitted, not because our jobs are too onerous."

Davies uses a rigid strategy to balance personal and professional time. Every morning, he fills in a detailed spreadsheet with activities for each half hour of his waking day. "Crucially, I also schedule in my breaks," he says — including lunch, coffee breaks and even daily naps. "For me, prioritizing life means putting it in the schedule like all the other important things."

Still, for many people, time management isn't really the problem, says Sandra Lewis, PsyD, a clinical psychologist at Montclair State University in New Jersey and founder of The Living Source, a company that helps clients improve well-being and achieve their goals. "People focus a lot on time management, but I think in terms of personal energy management. If you have enough energy, you make better use of your time," Lewis says. "In the same way we charge our cellphones, we need to charge ourselves."

Yet when we're overextended, even activities that energize us can feel like one more item on an endless to-do list. So Wise suggests taking advantage of smaller moments. You might not have an hour to go to the gym, but you could take a 10-minute lunchtime walk. If you can't fit in a yoga class, take five minutes between appointments to breathe or stretch or meditate. "Find self-care strategies that you can integrate in rather than add on," she says. "Honor the smaller things."

While such strategies are helpful, more needs to be done to change the culture of workplaces from the top down, says Christensen. Too many organizations value busyness and productivity at the expense of their employees' well-being, he says. "Often in this kind of professional workplace, when you're working with other smart, committed people, the way to excel is to overwork."

Christensen has been collaborating with health-care systems in Oregon to measure well-being among clinicians, including physicians and psychologists. He's optimistic that many such organizations are starting to realize that helping employees avoid burnout is not only good for employees, but also for patients and the financial bottom line. That kind of sea change is crucial for making work-life balance more attainable, he says. "The things we as individuals can do will take us only so far."

Meanwhile, Wise argues that instead of focusing only on reducing stress, the field of psychology should do more to promote and maintain well-being broadly. "We need a more positive vision," she says. "As a profession, whether we practice or do research, whether we're being mentors or treating patients, we need to be aware that keeping ourselves healthy is important."

Further reading

  • Hays, P. H. (2014). Creating well-being: Four steps to a happier, healthier life. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  • Walsh, R. (2011). Lifestyle and mental health. American Psychologist, 66(7), 579–592. DOI: 10.1037/a0021769
  • Wise, E. H., Hersh, M. A., & Gibson, C. M. (2012). Ethics, self-care and well-being for psychologists: Reenvisioning the stress-distress continuum. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 43(5), 487–494. DOI: 10.1037/a0029446

By Kirsten Weir


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23 Jun 2017

How Did You Get That Job? A Q&A with NIH Technology and Innovation Executive Dr. Matthew McMahon

The knowledge, skills and experience gained through your psychology training can successfully transfer to a variety of jobs. As the Director of the Office of Translational Alliances and Coordination at the NIH’s Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, Dr. Matthew McMahon uses his psychology background to help academic researchers convert their laboratory discoveries into therapies and cures through entrepreneurship and product development training, seed funding for projects, and mentoring by business and industry experts. Learn how you can apply your psychology education to a similar career path.

Matthew McMahonSpeaker:

Matthew McMahon, PhD, leads the Office of Translational Alliances and Coordination to enable the development and commercialization of research discoveries funded by the Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Dr. McMahon previously created and led the National Eye Institute’s Office of Translational Research to advance ophthalmic technologies through public-private partnerships with the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries. His previous experience includes service as the principal scientist for the bionic eye company Second Sight Medical Products and as a staff member on the Senate and House of Representatives committees responsible for science, technology, and innovation policy.

Garth FowlerHost:

Garth A. Fowler, PhD, is an Associate Executive Director for Education, and the Director of the Office for Graduate and Postgraduate Education and Training at APA. He leads the Directorate’s efforts to develop resources, guidelines, and policies that promote and enhance disciplinary education and training in psychology at the graduate and postdoctoral level.

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