23 Jun 2017

How Did You Get That Job? A Q&A with NIH Technology and Innovation Executive Dr. Matthew McMahon

The knowledge, skills and experience gained through your psychology training can successfully transfer to a variety of jobs. As the Director of the Office of Translational Alliances and Coordination at the NIH’s Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, Dr. Matthew McMahon uses his psychology background to help academic researchers convert their laboratory discoveries into therapies and cures through entrepreneurship and product development training, seed funding for projects, and mentoring by business and industry experts. Learn how you can apply your psychology education to a similar career path.

Matthew McMahonSpeaker:

Matthew McMahon, PhD, leads the Office of Translational Alliances and Coordination to enable the development and commercialization of research discoveries funded by the Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Dr. McMahon previously created and led the National Eye Institute’s Office of Translational Research to advance ophthalmic technologies through public-private partnerships with the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries. His previous experience includes service as the principal scientist for the bionic eye company Second Sight Medical Products and as a staff member on the Senate and House of Representatives committees responsible for science, technology, and innovation policy.

Garth FowlerHost:

Garth A. Fowler, PhD, is an Associate Executive Director for Education, and the Director of the Office for Graduate and Postgraduate Education and Training at APA. He leads the Directorate’s efforts to develop resources, guidelines, and policies that promote and enhance disciplinary education and training in psychology at the graduate and postdoctoral level.

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20 Jun 2017

Stop Wasting Time: Keys to Great Meetings

Stop Wasting Time: Keys to Great Meetings

Whether it's a gathering of health-care providers, faculty, students or a mix, here's how to make your meetings productive

Meetings that start late, last too long and accomplish little can stress attendees far beyond that lost hour, says Steven Rogelberg, PhD, of the University of North Carolina at Charlotte who studies meeting science. Research shows bad meetings can lead to job dissatisfaction, employee fatigue and what he calls "meeting recovery syndrome"—time spent cooling off after a frustrating meeting, which often includes destructive commiseration with colleagues.

"The next thing you know, the weight of the crappy meeting is higher, and it can spill over into other areas of work," he says.

How can everyone make meetings more effective, even enjoyable? The best gatherings happen when meeting leaders view themselves as stewards of everyone else's valuable time, says Rogelberg. Good stewards plan meetings thoughtfully, manage group dynamics, find out in advance why people want to meet and promote other people's contributions rather than their own.

Here is more wisdom from experts for attendees and leaders on how to meet-up better.

Be on time. Arriving late to meetings undermines productivity from the start—and upper management members are often the worst offenders, says Daniel Post Senning, co-author of "The Etiquette Advantage in Business" and great-great-grandson of manners guru Emily Post. "Often, they believe the rules don't apply to them."

Lateness may cause more than irritation: In a paper under review, Rogelberg and Joseph Allen, PhD, found that when a person showed up less than five minutes late for a meeting, productivity didn't suffer. But when an attendee or leader showed up five to 10 minutes late, "satisfaction, effectiveness and productivity of the meeting dropped dramatically," says Allen, an associate professor of industrial-organizational psychology at the University of Nebraska at Omaha.

Wallace Dixon, PhD, psychology department chair at East Tennessee State University, leads by example by starting and ending his monthly faculty meeting precisely on time. "If you don't, you insult the people who got there on time, reward the people who got there late and convey to everyone their time isn't that important," he says.

Be prepared. Arriving "late, frazzled, with nothing but a leaky coffee cup doesn't leave a good impression," Senning says. Bring something to take notes with and a steady attention span. Complete any assigned reading in advance. "Nothing is worse than showing up to the meeting and finding that no one has read the documents that [you sent, and] you then have to explain to everyone what they should have read," says Allen.

Make your phone (mostly) invisible. Despite the leave-the-device-at-the-door practice made popular by President Obama and Amazon, in most settings it is considered OK to bring your smartphone to meetings if you keep your attention on the speaker, says Senning. He recommends telling people in advance if you plan to use your phone to take notes or images of PowerPoint slides. But if people are gravitating to their devices in meetings, it may be a sign that the meeting needs to be more engaging, says Rogelberg. "Devices are signals," he says. "Psychologically, the person is trying to regain control of the time."

Diversify the discussion. No one attendee should monopolize the conversation—and no good facilitator should let anyone do it. Dixon says he will pull faculty aside later if they are talking too much in meetings because it bothers other staff and "they will lose faith in you as a leader if you don't handle it," he says. All attendees can share in that responsibility by making an effort to contribute even if public speaking isn't their forte, says Allen. His research has shown that when people make an effort to participate in a meeting—especially when there is a decision-making component—they are happier with the meeting's result and the meeting is more effective.

Move it along. Dixon places a time limit on each discussion item when he plans his faculty meetings and enforces those limits with his smartphone's timer. Another way to prevent run-on discussions and create a sense of urgency, Rogelberg says, is to switch from hourlong weekly or monthly meetings to shorter, more frequent "huddles": 10- to 15-minute meet-ups designed to save time and boost efficiency. If a leader has a difficult time staying on task, any attendee can help move a meeting forward by tactfully redirecting his or her attention to the agenda, says Allen.

Be constructive. Meetings can unravel when attendees cut one another off, dismiss each other, hold side conversations or argue. Avoid such tension, such as by saying, "I agree with some of what you're saying" instead of a short-tempered, "I just don't agree with you," says Brenda Fellows, PhD, of the Haas School of Business, University of California. Along those lines, Dixon advises the department chairs he mentors never to put a contentious issue to a vote in a meeting because it makes people uncomfortable. "Voting only divides, it never unites," he says. "When you resort to a vote, you have stopped talking."

Additional reading

Participate or Else! The Effect of Participation in Decision-Making in Meetings on Employee Engagement
Yoerger, M., Crowe, J., & Allen, J.A. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 2015

Meeting Design Characteristics and Attendee Perceptions of Staff/Team Meeting Quality
Cohen, M.A., Rogelberg, S.G., Allen, J.A., & Luong, A. Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice, 2011

"Not Another Meeting!" Are Meeting Time Demands Related to Employee Well-Being?
Rogelberg, S.G., Leach, D.J., Warr, P.B., & Burnfield, J.L. Journal of Applied Psychology, 2006

By Jamie Chamberlin


This article was originally published in the December 2016 Monitor on Psychology

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20 Jun 2017

What Do Superheroes and Psychologists Have in Common? monitorLIVE Event Explores the Intersection of Passion and Profession

Much like superheroes, psychologists often have origin stories—impactful events that have shaped their professional identity and defined their mission. This was a major theme of the June 1st monitorLIVE event in Los Angeles, during which clinical psychologist and superhero enthusiast Andrea Letamendi, PhD, shared her origin story that began as a graduate student.

As Dr. Letamendi explained, her origin story was marked by an experience of, “psychic disequilibrium," which occurs when individuals do not see their own identities reflected in their environment. As a graduate student, Dr. Letamendi rarely saw herself represented in her chosen field of psychology—she met few psychologists who shared her cultural background, history of immigration and discrimination, or passions and hobbies, including comics.  This struggle activated her personal supervillain, “Imposter Syndrome.” The villain resurfaced during stressful times such as during comps and dissertation research, making her feel like she did not belong in graduate school or in the field.

She was finally able to defeat the Imposter Syndrome villain with the antidote of being her true professional and personal self. She had been ignoring her love of comic books, which was a large part of her authentic identity. She did not know that the field of psychology offers a variety of career options and many ways to incorporate hobbies and interests into professional careers. She became a true superhero when she combined her passion for comics with her background in psychology to create her side hustle, an extra income stream that allows people to pursue an interest while keeping their full-time job.

Dr. Letamendi shared that side hustles can restore the professional identities of practitioners, helping them remember why they were initially drawn to the psychology field. Side hustles also help with daily burnout and compassion fatigue. She now connects her identity with her psychology background through her podcast, “The Arkham Sessions,” where she analyzes every episode of “Batman: the Animated Series” through the lens of a clinical psychologist. She examines characters and analyzes their behaviors and personalities. Dr. Letamendi’s childhood dream came full circle when DC Comics made her Batgirl’s psychologist in one of its published stories.

The point to a side hustle is not only to make money, but also to fulfill one’s creative passion. This is why Dr. Letamendi’s podcasts are free, in the spirit of “Giving Psychology Away.”

Dr. Letamendi’s mission, shaped by her origin story, is to increase public knowledge of mental health and to encourage help-seeking among people who would not otherwise seek treatment. Although she accomplishes this mission through her daily work, her side hustle gives her the opportunity to live and work authentically.

monitorLIVE events connect psychology professionals and thought leaders to learn about and discuss issues that impact and elevate the discipline. Keep an eye out for future monitorLIVE events coming to a city near you.

Review photos from monitorLIVE: Los Angeles. This networking event from APA brings together psychology professionals and thought leaders to learn about and discuss issues that impact and elevate the discipline. The featured speaker in Los Angeles was clinical psychologist and superhero enthusiast, Andrea Letamendi, PhD. Dr. Letamendi offered her perspective on fusing a psychology background with a passion to open career opportunities one may never have considered.

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06 Jun 2017

Reimbursing Interns, Increasing Care

Reimbursing Interns, Increasing Care

When Medicaid pays for psychology interns' services, more people get care

It is already hard for many psychology graduate students to find high-quality internships. The fact that training programs in 34 states cannot be reimbursed by Medicaid—the government insurance program for those with low incomes and limited resources—for the work of their highly skilled interns makes it even harder. The result? Less access to care for vulnerable patients who are already among the most underserved in the nation.

At least one North Carolina internship site, for example, has already closed partly because it couldn't get Medicaid reimbursement for the services its interns provided. In states that allow Medicaid reimbursement for interns, internship sites use that money to help finance their internship programs.

"My concern is that as there is more and more pressure on internship programs to support themselves, we could be in danger of losing more," says Sally Cameron, executive director of the North Carolina Psychological Association. Traditionally, she says, clinicians did not have to worry about billing enough services to cover their salaries. But with health-care institutions facing mounting financial pressures, that has changed—in a way that could be bad news for internship programs and Medicaid patients alike.

"Not being able to bill for a qualified service by a highly trained, supervised intern could result in further losses," says Cameron.

The lack of reimbursement for interns is also bad for consumers, because fewer internship slots mean fewer providers and thus gaps in mental health care for people who rely on Medicaid, Cameron points out. The 60 or so North Carolina internship slots at sites that now see Medicaid patients—the state's 20 other internship slots are in the federal prison system, where Medicaid reimbursement is not an issue—may not be allowed to see Medicaid patients because they cannot be reimbursed for their services. There is also a quality of care issue, adds Cameron, noting that the interns who see Medicaid patients are better equipped to serve Medicaid patients well once they become full-fledged psychologists.

The North Carolina Psychological Association is just one of many state, provincial and territorial psychological associations (SPTAs) working alongside APA to push for new legislation or regulatory fixes. "Our goal is full reimbursement for interns' services, without any strings attached," says Cameron. "We want interns to be full partners in providing services under supervision."

What is at stake is access to high-quality psychological services for the more than one in five Americans who rely on Medicaid for their health care. And with the Medicaid expansion in many states as a result of the Affordable Care Act, the demand for psychological services will only grow. "In some places, clients are already waiting weeks or months to be seen," says Eddy Ameen, PhD, who directs APA's Office on Early Career Psychologists.

Meeting a growing need

Because Medicaid is a joint federal/state program, each state runs its own program, within broad parameters set by the federal government. "Programs vary tremendously from state to state," says Shirley Ann Higuchi, JD, associate executive director for legal and regulatory affairs in APA's Practice Directorate. The managed-care companies that run many state Medicaid programs—and provide services to 80 percent of Medicaid beneficiaries—may also have their own reimbursement rules.

Only 16 states currently allow reimbursement for interns in some capacity; Nevada and Texas have rule changes pending that would allow for intern reimbursement. Of those 16 states, some limit intern reimbursement to certain settings or services. In Oregon, for instance, interns can be reimbursed only for services provided in coordinated care organizations. In Colorado, interns can bill for Medicaid services provided in residential facilities and a few other settings.

APA's Practice and Education Directorates are working to increase the number of states that allow Medicaid reimbursement for interns. APA is researching state programs to determine how they function and to identify barriers, investigating possible legislative or regulatory fixes and trying to come up with a national strategy that could be used as a template for advising state Medicaid agencies considering changes. APA is also tackling the problem of the six states, plus the District of Columbia, that don't even reimburse independently practicing psychologists for services provided to Medicaid patients—a situation that also limits patients' access to mental health care.

One significant barrier that has to be overcome is the concern among some state Medicaid agencies that interns aren't competent to provide services because they aren't yet licensed. "People outside the psychology training community assume that because doctoral psychology students take their licensing exams after their internship years, these unlicensed practitioners aren't as qualified as their licensed supervisors," says Caroline Bergner, JD, a policy and advocacy fellow in APA's Education Directorate. "But interns have so much experience by the time they start their internships—between 1,500 and 2,000 hours of patient care—that they're very well-equipped to provide psychotherapy and a host of other services."

Bergner and others encourage psychologists and trainees to reach out to APA for help if they're interested in fixing the intern reimbursement problem in their states. They should also collaborate with their SPTAs, training directors, state psychology licensing boards, students and others as they begin exploring legislative or regulatory possibilities. In states that have already won the fight, the psychology community should share that story and help those in other states achieve success, too. Says Ameen, "We need champions in more states."

For more information about Medicaid reimbursement, tips on how you can help and resources, check out the Advocacy Toolkit at www.apa.org/ed/graduate/about/reimbursement/index.aspx.

By Rebecca A. Clay


This article was originally published in the September 2016 Monitor on Psychology

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05 Jun 2017

When Your Research Gets Criticized or Politicized

When Your Research Gets Criticized or Politicized

As researchers, we are used to having our peers challenge our research and ask questions. It’s part of the scientific process that we hold so dear. But sometimes, our research results can generate unexpected outcomes that run counter to public or political opinion, resulting in personal attacks that are not based on the facts.

If you ever find your research is being attacked because of political views people have attributed to it, you may be unsure how or even whether to respond. Before you do anything, it might be helpful to consider the reason for the attacks.

A 2011 study on politics and social science research reports that ideas play into politics, and those ideas tend to shape people’s reactions to facts more than the actual research does. While people have their own reasons for consulting available research findings, their acceptance of the research has less to do with the actual research results than the message they want to convey. They may attack findings so they can continue to communicate their own messages.

According to a 2015 Pew study, many more people hold positions on issues that are strictly liberal or conservative today than they did two decades ago, which suggests that your research might not just come up against political-minded people in the policy world. The general public may attack your findings, too, if those findings go against what they believe.

This is why Dr. Susan Courtney, Professor and Chair of the Department of Psychological & Brain Sciences at Johns Hopkins University, makes sure her students know that criticism from the public is part of the scientific process. “I try to prep my students from the very beginning of the research planning process to anticipate potential criticisms of the work so that they have already prepared answers when the expected criticism arrives,” she says.

So, should you find your research has become a part of a political debate, Courtney advises not to take it personally, but to respond professionally, only focusing on the scientific issues. Make sure you are very familiar with related literature, so that you can openly acknowledge alternative interpretations of the data, but also effectively defend your study and your results.

The OHSU School of Medicine offers curricula specifically designed to help researchers respond to feedback in a constructive manner, both orally and in written venues. It also has journal clubs that provide students with experience in responding to feedback on research, and seminar classes that often include mentoring on how to answer questions live.

If the feedback isn’t in a live format, but rather in an email or a social media post, you should probably talk to your dean or professor before responding. If your school doesn’t offer mentoring opportunities designed to help you with written responses like at OHSU, you can always go to your Principal Investigator, your Dissertation Advisory Committee, or any faculty member who advises on research for advice on an appropriate response.

The American Psychological Association Science Directorate provides three key pieces of advice. The first is to develop what’s called a one-pager about your research that explains the aims, the context, and the findings of your research, including information such as potential applications if relevant. APA suggests developing one-pagers to explain your research to congressional and other policymakers, but they are very useful in responses to media or other public inquiries as well (see examples). Second, make full use of your university public relations and media staff before responding to any sort of political attack. Third, let the APA Science Government Relations Office (pkobor@apa.org) know as well if your research is attacked by a government policymaker. APA makes it a priority to defend research that is subject to unwarranted political attacks, and co-leads the Coalition to Promote Research which was formed to help defend peer-reviewed research that is attacked in the congressional arena.

If you are the PI, the Union of Concerned Scientists’ (UCS) freely available guide, Science in an Age of Scrutiny: How Scientists Can Respond to Criticism, and Personal Attacks, offers several suggestions, including evaluating the tone of the feedback and investigating the legitimacy of its source before responding, and refraining from responding in a way in which your response can be edited or manipulated.

The UCS advises to stand by your research and to let your data speak for itself. If you come across people attempting to discredit the findings you are reporting because they don’t fit into their agenda, or simply because they do not agree, convey to them that you are reporting facts, not opinion. Educate them about the meaning of research by letting them know you are neither for nor against what you’ve researched, because that isn’t how research works. The point of research is to examine a topic of importance and to present findings unbiasedly.

The good news is, many in the public respect research and understand that the scientific process may produce unexpected or challenging findings. The American Association for the Advancement of Science summarized several articles that appeared in the March, 2015 issue of the ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, and determined that “the public tends to hold scientists in high regard. People also generally welcome learning more about a controversial issue, such as geoengineering, in which their minds aren’t already made up. So, the situation is far from hopeless.”

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23 May 2017

A Collection of Educational Psychology Articles Booklet

A Collection of Educational Psychology Articles Booklet

Psychologists working in the field of education study how people learn and retain knowledge. Their research unlocks clues about the way people process information that can help every student learn.

This booklet, A Collection of Educational Psychology Articles from APA Journals, zeroes in on a range of educational issues from student challenges in learning mathematics to improving teacher-student relationships.

If you enjoy these articles, don’t stop here. APA’s Journals Program maintains a database of hundreds of papers on educational psychology. And as an APA member, you enjoy highly discounted access that enables you to explore these and other research topics online at www.apa.org/pubs/journals.

 

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22 May 2017

A Collection of Clinical Psychology Articles Booklet

A Collection of Clinical Psychology Articles Booklet

Clinical psychology is a complex and diverse specialty area within psychology. It addresses a breadth of mental, emotional and behavioral disorders, integrating the science of psychology with the prevention, assessment, diagnosis and treatment of a wide variety of complicated human problems. Clinical psychologists help people live healthier lives, applying the research and science of behavior change to the problems their patients experience.

This booklet, A Collection of Clinical Psychology Articles from APA Journals, highlights recent papers on everything from post-traumatic stress disorder to medication for childhood depression and the role of self-determination in mental health recovery.

If you enjoy these articles, don’t stop here. APA’s Journals Program maintains a database of hundreds of papers on clinical psychology. And as an APA member, you enjoy highly discounted access that enables you to explore these and other research topics online at www.apa.org/pubs/journals.

 

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12 May 2017

How Did You Get That Job? A Q&A with User Experience Researcher Dr. Laura Faulkner

The knowledge, skills and experience gained through your psychology education and training can successfully transfer to a variety of jobs that you may never have considered. As a user experience researcher, Dr. Laura Faulkner, PhD, utilizes her psychology expertise to help companies better understand how people perceive and respond to products or services. In this webinar, Dr. Faulkner discusses her "21-year love affair" in the user experience field. Learn how you can apply your psychology background to a similar career path.

Laura FaulknerSpeaker:

Dr. Laura Faulkner is the head of user experience research at Rackspace, a managed cloud computing company that helps businesses tap the power of cloud computing without the complexity and cost of managing it on their own. She has worked in user experience (UX) for over twenty years at companies and institutions: Pearson, FalconDay Consulting and the University of Texas-Austin. In all her roles, Dr. Faulkner’s focus is on “human beings: users as humans, development teams as humans, leadership as humans, all of whom need information and designs that move them forward in what they are doing and wanting to do. My goal is to collaborate and lead from inception through successful use, to make a difference.”

Garth FowlerHost:

Dr. Garth A. Fowler is an Associate Executive Director for Education, and the Director of the Office for Graduate and Postgraduate Education and Training at APA. He leads the Directorate’s efforts to develop resources, guidelines, and policies that promote and enhance disciplinary education and training in psychology at the graduate and postdoctoral level.

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11 May 2017

Can I work here?

Can I work here?

Industrial/organizational psychologists offer their advice for helping job seekers determine whether a potential employer offers a good fit

Workers who feel valued by their employers are more likely to be satisfied with their jobs and be motivated to do their best. They're also less likely to want to leave the organization in the next year, according to APA's 2016 Work and Well-Being Survey, which polled more than 1,500 U.S. workers.

The survey also found that work-life fit—or how well a job fits with the rest of an employee's life—plays an important role in employee retention, says David W. Ballard, PsyD, MBA, who directs APA's Center for Organizational Excellence. "Americans spend a majority of their waking hours at work and, as such, they want to have harmony between their job demands and the other parts of their lives," Ballard says. That means that to remain competitive, employers need to create environments where employees feel connected to the organization and have a work experience that's part of a rich, fulfilling life.

How can psychologists determine whether a potential employer will give them that positive experience and work-life fit? Some industrial/organizational (I/O) psychologists point to the importance of matching an employee's values with that of the organization. Others say previous work experiences—such as the factors they did and didn't like about a job or supervisor—are key indicators of what to look for in a new role. Overall, though, determining whether an organization is a good match has to start with a thorough understanding of your career priorities, I/O psychologists say. "It is as much about what your needs and preferences are as it is about the organization," Ballard says.

Look inward. Before the job search, psychologists should pinpoint what their work interests are, says I/O psychologist Edgar Schein, PhD, a professor emeritus at the MIT Sloan School of Management. Start by conducting a self-analysis of your career to date to help you determine your strengths, your values and what motivates you—or, as Schein calls it, your "career anchor." His research on career anchors has shown that most people place different amounts of emphasis on the importance of eight categories or preferences. They are technical/functional competence; general managerial competence; autonomy/independence; security/stability; entrepreneurial creativity; service/dedication to a cause; pure challenge; and lifestyle.

So, for example, among clinical psychologists, some want to work for an organization because they are more security/stability oriented, while others want to set up private practices because they want to be on their own.

He points out, however, that often one's anchor can't truly be discovered before spending several years in the workforce. "This really is a deeper level of knowledge about oneself that isn't usually something people know when they graduate," he explains. "They need 10 years of experience to really figure themselves out."

Network with experts. Early on in your career, Schein recommends reaching out to psychologists who are in jobs you can imagine moving into. "Find someone ahead of you in your career and get a sense of what work is like for them at that job," he says.

Determine personal priorities. Job seekers also have to think about their personal priorities and interests before they start their job searches, says Helena Cooper-Thomas, PhD, a professor of organizational behaviour at Auckland University of Technology in New Zealand. Her point is backed by new research: In a meta-analysis of 92 studies with nearly 35,000 participants, employees whose interest profiles matched their job profiles were more likely to perform better, help others in the organization and stay with the company longer. The study, led by Michigan State University I/O psychologist Christopher Nye, PhD, shows that it's not a person's overall interest in a particular kind of work, but how their interests across various types of work match with the skills and tasks involved in a particular job. The researchers surmise that this match—known as person-environment fit—is a much better predictor of job performance than the more general interest or personality measures often used by college career centers (Journal of Vocational Psychology, 2017).

One way job seekers can determine whether their interests match with those of other company employees is to search for the employer on LinkedIn, Ballard says. There, you can often find employees' public-facing profiles, which can offer insight into the skill sets and longevity of people who work there.

Consider a "misfit" job. Candidates should also consider where they can tolerate or even benefit from "misfit," Cooper-Thomas adds. "If you're the type of person who likes to have fun at work by playing pranks or telling jokes, you probably wouldn't do well in a secure facility, while those with a competitive streak may conflict with the compassionate and calm values found in some health-care settings," she says.

But having knowledge or skills that are different from one's colleagues can result in more innovative ideas and helpful solutions, which can help employees get noticed and accelerate their careers, she points out.

Do more research. Once psychologists determine the factors that matter most to them in a job, they should read up on any organization they are interested in, paying particular attention to its mission or values statement, says Ballard. "Something that's often telling about an organization's attention to employee well-being is whether or not it has something about creating a positive or healthy work environment and supporting staff built into its mission statement or values," he says. He also recommends doing an Internet search using both Google and Glassdoor to see how the organization is portrayed and whether, for example, they've been embroiled in any controversy. "Look not just at the things the organization itself posts, but also the kinds of comments, statements and reactions they get from other people," he says.

Get specific in your interview. Of course, it's always helpful to ask about an organization's culture during the interview process—the drawback is that there is no guarantee that the recruiter's espoused values are the values in use, warns Cooper-Thomas. What can be more helpful, she suggests, is asking your interviewers to be more specific by sharing an incident at work that reveals the organization's values in action. Interviewers could discuss a time they were particularly proud of their employer, for example.

Cooper-Thomas also notes that every organization has different layers of culture, so job seekers should try to ascertain whether they would fit with the people they would work with on a daily basis, such as supervisors and colleagues. She suggests paying particular attention to how employers treat people: Is the receptionist friendly and helpful? Did the interviewers show respect by arriving on time? Did they answer the job seeker's questions honestly?

Gauge your potential support system. Also ask interviewers about the amount of autonomy employees have within the organization, the organization's structure and the kinds of support available, Ballard says. For example, if you're looking for a job where you're providing clinical services, you'll want to know whether there is administrative, billing and collection support.

In addition, pay attention to how formal or informal the work environment appears to be, as well as how diverse and inclusive it is, Ballard says.

And if it's important to you, talk to the recruiter and your potential supervisors about flexibility and work-life fit to find out if you'd have the ability to modify when, where, and how much you work to accommodate your needs.

Think about the "fun factor." Early career psychologists have spent many years studying and planning their career paths, and are usually quite passionate about further developing them, says University of Chicago Booth School of Business professor Ayelet Fishbach, PhD. But when it comes to sticking with a job, people thrive most when they're doing interesting work with people they like, according to research by Fishbach and behavioral science doctoral candidate Kaitlin Woolley (Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2015). So, in addition to looking for benefits such as career development opportunities, it's important to consider whether you can expect to enjoy, be challenged, fulfilled and experience social connections in a work setting, the authors say. "A workplace that offers immediate benefits in terms of engagement and enjoyment is a place where people stay," Fishbach says.

Find out what a typical day would really look like. Finally, Schein encourages job seekers to get personal with the people they're interviewing. That means spending time to get to know the one or two people you have met in the organization by asking them why they got into the field and how they like their jobs. This tactic works best toward the end of the interview process, he says, or even as a follow-up call once a job is offered.

"What you really need to find out is not about all the benefits and bonuses that might be available to you, but what you'd really be doing day by day and would the people around you be supportive of that," Schein says. 

Trust your gut

Before you take a job, ask yourself the following questions:

  1. Will I be pursuing my true interests in this position?
  2. Will I have the work-life balance I want?
  3. Do my co-workers seem to mirror my values?
  4. Will I feel valued by this employer and in this position?

By Amy Novotney


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10 May 2017

7 Things to Consider Before Starting a Side Hustle

7 Things to Consider Before Starting a Side Hustle

Making extra money on the side sounds great, right? Thanks to the internet and mobile technology, new ways of making money after work are becoming a norm in our society. Side hustles can serve several different purposes – from creating an emergency fund, retiring early, or making a down payment on your first house.

It seems like there are endless stories about people striking it rich from a random side gig, but there's actually much more to it than meets the eye.

Side hustles, no matter how small, are still a business. Just like you have to hustle to get ahead in your actual job, the same goes for side hustling, and it may be even harder because you are building it from the ground up!

Here are 7 things to seriously consider before starting a side hustle:

1. Do you have a business model?

This can be a fairly intimidating aspect of starting any type of business, especially if you don't have any prior experience. The most important part of building a successful brand is learning how to plan correctly and find your target market.

Here are a few things you'll want to think about when you are planning your side-hustle strategy:

  • Does the service you are providing actually provide value?
  • How will you advertise and find clients or customers?
  • What is the realistic amount of time it will take to get your business up and running?
  • Is there a specific legal structure that would work best for your type of business?
  • What are the tax implications that you may face later down the road?

While you may be thinking that your business will just be a hobby that you do in your spare time, it's always smart to make sure that you understand every aspect of your business before getting started.

Don't be afraid to hire an attorney to help you create a strong legal structure that will separate the business from your personal assets. If you don't, it's possible that your personal assets could be vulnerable in the unfortunate circumstances of a lawsuit.

You may also want to pay an accountant to give you guidance on the best tax strategy for your side hustle moving forward. If there is anyone you don't want to forget about, it's the IRS.

2. You may need startup capital

In addition to the professional services mentioned above that you may need to cover the cost for up front, there are also other business expenses that you may need to prepare for.

Even a service as simple as pet-sitting requires extra money in gas and potentially pet insurance.

Many side hustles don't require a massive amount of startup capital, but it's always a good idea to sit down and create realistic estimates on what it will cost you to run your business.

3. It can take more time than you think

The time that it takes to run a successful side hustle has to come from somewhere, and it's usually what would be your time to relax on the couch or go to a movie on the weekend.

Depending on the nature of your side hustle, you may need to schedule your time very carefully to make sure you are still able to do things that help you recoup from your actual job.

4. Your primary income comes first

It's easy to get obsessed about the extra income that is coming in from your side hustle, but your primary job still needs to come first.

One of the biggest risks involved with creating secondary income streams is that you are essentially burning the candle at both ends. The last thing you want to do is experience "burnout" at your main job or have your performance slip to a point where you could be fired.

No matter how great your side hustle is, if it doesn't at least match or even exceed your day job income – it needs to take a back seat.

5. Do you have a goal?

With as much time as side hustles actually take to become successful, you'll want to make sure that you have a goal going into it that will help keep you motivated to put in the extra work.

It could be as simple a goal as saving extra money for vacations, or as big a goal as retiring from your job 10 years earlier than you originally planned. Whatever it is, make sure that it's important enough to push you to put in the extra time.

6. You'll probably have to learn to sell

The reality of keeping a business alive is that you'll have to feed it with new sales. If you have no background in sales at all, trying to convince other people to give you their money for a product or service can be fairly intimidating.

While there are certainly sales strategies and tactics you can learn – it's going to take trial and error. Every time you have a successful sale, there may be ten times that you get turned down.

Just like with anything else, practice makes perfect.

7. It could fail

Before you take the leap into part-time entrepreneurship, you need to understand that your venture has a real chance of not making it. There are a number of reasons for this, but at the end of the day it's just the nature of business.

They just don't always make it.

Fortunately, if you provide a great service or product that gives value to your target consumers, you're much more likely to thrive.

Don't let this list discourage you

Even though the above list may make side hustles seem like an intimidating challenge, they are still an incredible tool for getting ahead financially and meeting your biggest goals sooner than you originally planned.

As long as you take your side gig seriously and treat it like a real business, you have a great chance to find success and create a viable second income stream.

-- Bobby Hoyt is a former high school teacher who paid off $40,000 of student loan debt in a year and a half. He now runs the personal finance site MillennialMoneyMan.com full-time, and has been seen on CNBC, Forbes, Business Insider, Reuters, Marketwatch, and many other major publications.

The opinions and advice expressed in this article are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect those held by the American Psychology Association (APA).

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