22 Sep 2017

Open Opportunities to do Collaborative Research

Open Opportunities to do Collaborative Research

Psychologists can find rewarding opportunities to work with other disciplines within NIH's major research initiatives

The National Institutes of Health is the world's biggest public funder of biomedical research, investing more than $32 billion each year—and a sizable amount of that money can be tapped by mental health and behavioral science researchers, especially those who are interested in collaborating with other disciplines.

Several major initiatives welcome a transdisciplinary perspective, even if on the surface they don't sound terribly psychological. Among them are the All of Us/Precision Medicine Initiative, the Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies (BRAIN) Initiative, Environmental influences on Child Health Outcomes (ECHO) and the Big Data to Knowledge (BD2K) program.

"There are lots of opportunities, if the medical side becomes aware of the skills and content knowledge we psychologists have," says psychologist Leonard Bickman, PhD, a research professor of psychology at Vanderbilt University.

His research, focusing on how to encourage people to participate in clinical trials, receives funding from the NIH Clinical Translational Science Awards Program through Vanderbilt University Medical Center's Recruitment Innovation Center.

"If you're interested in applying theory, it's a wonderful world to work in," he says.

High-impact science

Among the initiatives where psychologists are finding opportunities is the All of Us program, which offered $55 million in awards in fiscal year 2016 to build the partnerships and infrastructure to get the program off the ground. All of Us is recruiting its million-plus participants and plans to release funding announcements once the project is launched. Those participants, representing a diversity of ages, races and backgrounds, will share biological samples, genetic data, lifestyle information and health records. Ultimately, those data will help researchers advance a more personalized approach to medicine by identifying biological markers for disease, identifying why people respond differently to medications, developing new ways to measure disease risk and creating a platform to test new targeted therapies.

The project will also collect large amounts of data on factors relevant to psychology, including stress, mood states, health risk behaviors and family and social network dynamics, says William Riley, PhD, director of the Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research at NIH.

"As this builds up to over a million participants, there will be a lot of opportunities for behavioral and social scientists to access those data. They'll also be able to apply to add other variables of interest to them," he says. "The longitudinal nature and sheer size of the sample will make a big difference for behavioral research."

Another important initiative for psychology research will be the BRAIN initiative, Riley says. BRAIN began funding researchers in 2014 and continues to accept new applications, awarding more than $70 million to research teams at 60 institutions in fiscal year 2016. The first stages of the project have mostly been focused on building tools that enable scientists to map the connectivity and circuitry of the brain.

"But all of that work is ultimately to understand behavior," Riley says. "As we move into the next five years, the goal will be to take some of those tools and map that circuitry onto specific behaviors. I expect we'll be seeing even more things coming out of BRAIN that have increasing relevance to psychology."

Sterling Johnson, PhD, a clinical neuropsychologist at the University of Wisconsin–Madison, has funding from BRAIN for a project that aims to develop better methods to detect small but meaningful structural changes in the brains of healthy adults that could predict the onset of Alzheimer's disease. He's also funded through the large BD2K initiative for another project that applies computational neuroscience to Alzheimer's disease. Launched in 2012, BD2K aims to develop tools to integrate data science and vast data sets (often called "Big Data") with biomedical research.

Those projects are succeeding thanks to the close collaboration between the Wisconsin Alzheimer's Disease Research Center and the University of Wisconsin's Department of Computer Science, he says. "This kind of research is much more powerful when you can do it in a multidisciplinary way," he says. "It's not a new concept to do team science, but initiatives like BRAIN really incentivize thinking about a problem from multiple angles, and really allow for high-impact science."

Speak a common language

Leslie Leve, PhD, who trained as a developmental psychologist and is now a professor in the College of Education at the University of Oregon, is also beginning to reap the benefits of transdisciplinary research, thanks to her work with Environmental influences on Child Health Outcomes (ECHO). Launched in 2016 with $157 million in awards, the seven-year initiative will study the effects of a broad range of early environmental influences on child health and development. 

The program was a perfect fit for Leve, who for more than a decade has followed birth and adoptive families in an effort to separate the effects of genes and parenting on child development. Under a new grant from ECHO, Leve and her colleagues will enroll new children to build upon their existing data.

In the process, she's collaborating with psychologists, physicians, psychiatrists, social workers, geneticists and environmental scientists. "Everyone is coming from different philosophical backgrounds. In the end, that produces really novel, innovative science," she says.

Yet it can be challenging, too. Openness to ideas and willingness to learn from others is key to succeeding, Leve says. "We're learning to speak a common language and find the best way forward. You have to be willing to hear other perspectives, other paradigms and consider them in your research methodology."

It's not the right path for everyone. In addition to good communication and willingness to learn, thriving in this space requires patience, Bickman says. "It's so much easier to run a study with college students, hand out a questionnaire and be done in a semester. These large-scale projects often don't bear any fruit for years," he says. "It's a very different career path, and it has to be considered carefully." But for the right personality, the rewards can be significant, he adds.

Interested in diving in? Riley, Johnson and Leve all recommend starting by learning the basics of other fields relevant to your research interests. Read up on basic genetics. Learn to use electronic health records. Talk to computer scientists and learn their lingo. "Do some initial work to set yourself up to be competitive for a project like this," Riley says.

You probably don't have to go far to make those connections, Leve adds. "It's a tight-knit science world. Most likely, I know somebody who knows somebody who's an expert in a particular discipline, whether at my own institution or elsewhere."

She recommends building those connections in natural ways, by collaborating on a paper or sharing a draft of a grant you're working on to get the perspective of someone from a different field. "Those things can provide a really good training ground for this kind of experience," she says.

Ultimately, if you want to be a part of a major research initiative, you have to be willing to look beyond the traditional boundaries of psychology to collaborate and innovate in bold new ways, says Johnson. "It's hard to get funded by NIH these days doing individual lab research. NIH is looking for high-impact science that's really going to move the needle," he says. "They're looking for things with clear translational relevance that are going to make the world a better place."

Resources

All of Us Research Program
www.nih.gov/research-training/allofus-research-program

The BRAIN Initiative
www.braininitiative.nih.gov/index.htm

Environmental influences on Child Health Outcomes Program
www.nih.gov/echo

Big Data to Knowledge
https://datascience.nih.gov/bd2k

By Kirsten Weir


This article was originally published in the June 2017 Monitor on Psychology

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22 Sep 2017

Women Outnumber Men in Psychology, but Not in the Field’s Top Echelons

Women Outnumber Men in Psychology, but Not in the Field’s Top Echelons

A new APA report recommends ways to boost women's status and pay

Even as women have come to dominate psychology in terms of numbers within the educational pipeline, workforce and APA, they continue to lack equity with their male colleagues when it comes to money, power and status, according to a new report from APA's Committee on Women in Psychology (CWP).

"The Changing Gender Composition of Psychology: Update and Expansion of the 1995 Task Force Report" reviews the data and offers recommendations in such areas as education and training, employment and professional activities.

What's most surprising about the findings is how little has changed in the more than two decades since the first report, says lead author Ruth Fassinger, PhD.

While female psychologists have made gains in some areas, they have seen increasing disparities in other areas, such as salaries (see chart), which the report suggests could be partly due to the influx of young women joining the workforce for the first time.

"Women [in psychology] are still experiencing inequity," says Fassinger, a professor emerita at the University of Maryland's College of Education. "You see it everywhere: in training, in the jobs that women have and the patterns of workforce participation, and in APA itself."

Pervasive inequities

Drawing on data from APA's Center for Workforce Studies (CWS) and a literature review and analysis Fassinger conducted as a visiting scholar at APA, the report notes the dramatic growth of women's representation within psychology that began in the 1970s and 1980s. Take psychology education. Of the 70,311 students enrolled in psychology graduate programs in 2014, according to CWS data, 75 percent were women. And up to 80 percent of students in training programs focused on health service provision are women. But by the time they finish their training, the report notes, female doctoral students are already at a disadvantage, with significantly higher debt levels than their male peers, according to a CWS analysis of pooled data from 1997 to 2009.

Unequal Pay Continues

As women psychologists enter the workforce, they encounter lower salaries than men regardless of subfield. The average wage gap in starting salaries for recent doctoral grads is almost $20,000, the report points out, citing National Science Foundation (NSF) data from 2010.

One bright spot is jobs at government agencies, where women psychologists predominate and the wage gap is much smaller than in other settings. According to the NSF data, women with psychology PhDs who were working in government in 2010 made almost 92 percent of what their male counterparts made. But even that sector has seen a drop in equity along with other sectors; in 1993, women's government salaries were 94 percent of men's.

"The fact that women are accruing greater debt yet are being paid less is alarming," says Alette Coble-Temple, PsyD, chair of APA's CWP and a professor of clinical psychology at John F. Kennedy University in Pleasant Hill, California. Women who are ethnic and racial minorities and women with disabilities can face even greater disparities, she adds. Minority students finish their doctoral training with significantly more debt than white students, for example. The difference is especially pronounced among PsyD students, the report notes, citing data from 1997 to 2009 that show an average $95,000 debt for minority PsyD recipients versus $84,000 for white PsyD recipients.

Women in academia face particular challenges, the report emphasizes. It typically takes women a year longer to achieve tenure than men, for example. And even though women are flooding into the discipline, they are still underrepresented as associate professors, full professors and institutional leaders.

According to CWS data, 46 percent of all male psychology faculty in the academic year 2013–14 were full professors compared with 28 percent of female faculty, for instance. Just 16 percent of male academics were assistant professors compared with almost 28 percent of female academics. Women were also overrepresented among adjunct, nontenure-track lecturer and other temporary positions, with almost 17 percent of female faculty in these roles compared with 11 percent of male faculty. These patterns have held steady over the last two decades despite the influx of women into psychology departments.

The inequities play out within APA itself. Women now make up 58 percent of APA's membership and hold more than half of governance positions. Yet women are underrepresented when it comes to the association's top honors, participation in divisions and editorial roles. While 40 percent of those involved in the review process of APA journals are women, for instance, most are ad hoc reviewers. Just 18 percent of editors of APA journals are women.

The report acknowledges that women's choices account for some of the disparities. Women are more likely to seek PsyDs, for instance, and graduates of these programs accumulate almost twice as much debt as those of PhD programs. In addition, women practitioners are more likely to work part time, limiting their income. But, says Fassinger, these choices must be viewed within a sociocultural context that constrains women's options. "It's almost impossible to talk about things as free choice when you have all this socialization that propels people into certain directions," she says, noting that women may choose part-time work because of child-rearing obligations.

To address the disparity, the Committee on Women in Psychology recommends in the report that APA work to raise awareness and advocate for equity, pushing policies that encourage salary transparency and monitoring progress.

The report also calls for researching students' decision-making processes and interventions that could influence their decisions, such as making students at all levels aware of the wide range of meaningful careers beyond health service provision so that they can take advantage of other employment sectors where there are opportunities. Other recommendations include continuing to advocate for federal funding for trainees and early career psychologists, creating a task force to identify barriers to advancement within academia, and facilitating more mentorship for women.

The report should spur research exploring the factors that make psychology careers less attractive to men, says Paola Michelle Contreras, PsyD, of APA's CWP and an assistant professor of counseling at William James College in Newton, Massachusetts. "This is a good take-off point to get more data and learn more about the nuances," she says.

To read the full report, visit www.apa.org/women/programs/gender-composition/index.aspx.

By Rebecca A. Clay


This article was originally published in the July/August 2017 Monitor on Psychology

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19 Sep 2017

Practice Management Insights Booklet

Practice Management Insights Booklet

Too few psychology training programs offer guidance on the nuts and bolts of opening and running a practice, such as how to find office space, choose an electronic records system and protect against malpractice claims. “Practice Management Insights” seeks to fill those knowledge gaps by giving psychology practitioners the support they need to provide high-quality services in today’s increasingly competitive marketplace.

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11 Sep 2017

Game: A Maze Race

Beat the computer and get out of the maze first! You are the green player, and the computer is the red. Finish the maze as fast as you can because when the red player gets to the flag first, then the game is over. Train your eye to track down all dead ends and avoid them as swiftly as you can to save time and so that you can get to the flag quicker. Remember that the number of points incurred, upon reaching the flag, depends on how far the red player is from the finish line.

Instructions:

  • Click on start with mouse and cursor to begin the game.
  • Direct your green ball to the flag using the arrow keys. Holding them down will make your ball travel farther in one move.
  • Find the shortest path and outrun the red ball. You win if you reach the flag first. Look out for walls that block your path!
  • The further distance the red ball is from the flag when you reach the flag, the more points you will get.
  • If the red ball gets to the flag first, your game is over!

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23 Aug 2017

How Did You Get That Job? A Q&A with Chief Clinical Officer Dr. Dennis Morrison

The knowledge, skills and experience gained through your psychology training can successfully transfer to a variety of jobs. Dr. Dennis Morrison is the Chief Clinical Officer at Netsmart Technologies, the largest provider of electronic health records and related technologies and services to behavioral healthcare and other human services organizations. In his role, he helps make sure customers are using tools that meet their needs and are clinically appropriate and psychometrically sound. Learn how you can apply your psychology education to a similar career path.

Dennis MorrisonSpeaker:
Dr. Dennis Morrison has worked in the behavioral health field since 1969. Academically, he holds two Masters degrees in Psychology and Exercise Physiology from Ball State University. His doctorate is in Counseling Psychology also from Ball State University. He is a prolific author, frequent presenter (including a TEDx talk), and is co-inventor on a patent for a behavioral healthcare outcomes software product.

 

Garth Fowler, PhDHost:
Garth A. Fowler, PhD, is an Associate Executive Director for Education, and the Director of the Office for Graduate and Postgraduate Education and Training at APA. He leads the Directorate’s efforts to develop resources, guidelines, and policies that promote and enhance disciplinary education and training in psychology at the graduate and postdoctoral level.

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19 Aug 2017

Game: Jumping Frog Puzzle

This frog needs your help to put him back together so that he can jump away. Using your mouse and cursor, click and drag to separate the pieces. Click on a piece and drag it to put it in place next to other pieces. Clicking on the arrowed circle and moving mouse in each piece will allow you to rotate it. When a piece is about to be joined to another correctly it will light up. Let go of the cursor to place it. Continue joining pieces until the frog is complete. When you are finished, he will jump away.

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35 10
14 Aug 2017

The Art (and Science) of Excellent Mentoring

The Art (and Science) of Excellent Mentoring

This series provides evidence-based rules of engagement for developing high-impact mentoring relationships and addresses some of the most salient and consistent ethical challenges and tensions for mentors in any organization or context. *This series is eligible for CE credit. Earn 1 CE credit for each session.

The two-part series includes the following topics:

Becoming a Master Mentor

Learn the interpersonal habits and behavior strategies of Master Mentors, including techniques for forming and managing effective mentorships.

Ethical Issues in Mentoring Relationship

Utilizing a mentoring Code of Ethics and ethics vignettes, this workshop emphasizes the values, attitudes, and behaviors of ethically conscientious mentors.

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14 Aug 2017

Ethical Issues in Mentoring Relationships

Decades of research indicates that mentorships lead to significant positive career and personal outcomes for mentees.  But mentoring relationships are also interpersonally complex, fluid, ever evolving, and sometimes dysfunctional.  This workshop addresses some of the most salient and consistent ethical challenges and tensions for mentors in any organization or context.  Mentoring relationships are framed as fiduciary relationships in which mentors own a fundamental obligation to avoid harm to the mentee and to promote the mentee’s best interests whenever possible.  Utilizing a mentoring Code of Ethics and ethics vignettes, this workshop emphasizes the values, attitudes, and behaviors of ethically conscientious mentors.

Learning Objective
Describe at least 5 of the principles bearing on ethical mentorship.

W. Brad Johnson, PhDPresenter
W. Brad Johnson is Professor of psychology in the Department of Leadership, Ethics and Law at the United States Naval Academy, and a Faculty Associate in the Graduate School of Education at Johns Hopkins University. A clinical psychologist Dr. Johnson is a fellow of the American Psychological Association and recipient of the Johns Hopkins University Teaching Excellence Award. Dr. Johnson is the author of numerous publications including 13 books, in the areas of mentoring, professional ethics, and counseling. His most recent book is: Athena Rising: How and Why Men Should Mentor Women (2016, with David Smith).

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11 Aug 2017

Game: Wild Wild Taxi

Play taxi driver by creating riveting speed runs as you rush to beat the time. You'll have to switch to the open lanes at the perfect time before drivers cut you off. Pound those keyboard arrow keys to accelerate forward and pass the cars blocking you ahead and keeping you from crossing the crucial time lines. Your quick thinking will be the deciding factor to garner the top spots in the scoring list. Each checkpoint you make adds up an additional time which means more asphalt to run. Failing to reach a checkpoint when the time runs out will mean that your mission is over.

How to play:
  • Put cursor on start to begin.
  • When the screen says, “go,” press the up arrow to get your car moving.
  • The more you press the up-arrow key, the faster your car will go. The down-arrow key will make you decelerate.
  • Use left and right-arrow keys to change lanes.
  • Space bar lets you jump over cars for points.
  • If you don’t make the checkpoint before the timer runs out, your game is over.

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10 Aug 2017

Becoming a Master Mentor

This practical workshop provides evidence-based rules of engagement for developing high-impact mentoring relationships. Topics include the interpersonal habits and behavior strategies of Master Mentors, including techniques for forming and managing effective mentorships. The instructor emphasizes theory-supported and evidence-based mentoring strategies. This workshop is also dedicated to helping organizational and educational leaders think in an informed way about the key ingredients of a strong mentoring culture and various structures for increasing both the prevalence and efficacy of mentoring in their organizations.

Learning Objective
Articulate at least 10 salient practices of Master Mentors.

W. Brad Johnson, PhDPresenter
W. Brad Johnson is Professor of psychology in the Department of Leadership, Ethics and Law at the United States Naval Academy, and a Faculty Associate in the Graduate School of Education at Johns Hopkins University. A clinical psychologist Dr. Johnson is a fellow of the American Psychological Association and recipient of the Johns Hopkins University Teaching Excellence Award. Dr. Johnson is the author of numerous publications including 13 books, in the areas of mentoring, professional ethics, and counseling. His most recent book is: Athena Rising: How and Why Men Should Mentor Women (2016, with David Smith).

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