23 Jun 2017

How Did You Get That Job? A Q&A with NIH Technology and Innovation Executive Dr. Matthew McMahon

The knowledge, skills and experience gained through your psychology training can successfully transfer to a variety of jobs. As the Director of the Office of Translational Alliances and Coordination at the NIH’s Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, Dr. Matthew McMahon uses his psychology background to help academic researchers convert their laboratory discoveries into therapies and cures through entrepreneurship and product development training, seed funding for projects, and mentoring by business and industry experts. Learn how you can apply your psychology education to a similar career path.

Matthew McMahonSpeaker:

Matthew McMahon, PhD, leads the Office of Translational Alliances and Coordination to enable the development and commercialization of research discoveries funded by the Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Dr. McMahon previously created and led the National Eye Institute’s Office of Translational Research to advance ophthalmic technologies through public-private partnerships with the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries. His previous experience includes service as the principal scientist for the bionic eye company Second Sight Medical Products and as a staff member on the Senate and House of Representatives committees responsible for science, technology, and innovation policy.

Garth FowlerHost:

Garth A. Fowler, PhD, is an Associate Executive Director for Education, and the Director of the Office for Graduate and Postgraduate Education and Training at APA. He leads the Directorate’s efforts to develop resources, guidelines, and policies that promote and enhance disciplinary education and training in psychology at the graduate and postdoctoral level.

Did you find this webinar useful?

0 0
20 Jun 2017

Stop Wasting Time: Keys to Great Meetings

Stop Wasting Time: Keys to Great Meetings

Whether it's a gathering of health-care providers, faculty, students or a mix, here's how to make your meetings productive

Meetings that start late, last too long and accomplish little can stress attendees far beyond that lost hour, says Steven Rogelberg, PhD, of the University of North Carolina at Charlotte who studies meeting science. Research shows bad meetings can lead to job dissatisfaction, employee fatigue and what he calls "meeting recovery syndrome"—time spent cooling off after a frustrating meeting, which often includes destructive commiseration with colleagues.

"The next thing you know, the weight of the crappy meeting is higher, and it can spill over into other areas of work," he says.

How can everyone make meetings more effective, even enjoyable? The best gatherings happen when meeting leaders view themselves as stewards of everyone else's valuable time, says Rogelberg. Good stewards plan meetings thoughtfully, manage group dynamics, find out in advance why people want to meet and promote other people's contributions rather than their own.

Here is more wisdom from experts for attendees and leaders on how to meet-up better.

Be on time. Arriving late to meetings undermines productivity from the start—and upper management members are often the worst offenders, says Daniel Post Senning, co-author of "The Etiquette Advantage in Business" and great-great-grandson of manners guru Emily Post. "Often, they believe the rules don't apply to them."

Lateness may cause more than irritation: In a paper under review, Rogelberg and Joseph Allen, PhD, found that when a person showed up less than five minutes late for a meeting, productivity didn't suffer. But when an attendee or leader showed up five to 10 minutes late, "satisfaction, effectiveness and productivity of the meeting dropped dramatically," says Allen, an associate professor of industrial-organizational psychology at the University of Nebraska at Omaha.

Wallace Dixon, PhD, psychology department chair at East Tennessee State University, leads by example by starting and ending his monthly faculty meeting precisely on time. "If you don't, you insult the people who got there on time, reward the people who got there late and convey to everyone their time isn't that important," he says.

Be prepared. Arriving "late, frazzled, with nothing but a leaky coffee cup doesn't leave a good impression," Senning says. Bring something to take notes with and a steady attention span. Complete any assigned reading in advance. "Nothing is worse than showing up to the meeting and finding that no one has read the documents that [you sent, and] you then have to explain to everyone what they should have read," says Allen.

Make your phone (mostly) invisible. Despite the leave-the-device-at-the-door practice made popular by President Obama and Amazon, in most settings it is considered OK to bring your smartphone to meetings if you keep your attention on the speaker, says Senning. He recommends telling people in advance if you plan to use your phone to take notes or images of PowerPoint slides. But if people are gravitating to their devices in meetings, it may be a sign that the meeting needs to be more engaging, says Rogelberg. "Devices are signals," he says. "Psychologically, the person is trying to regain control of the time."

Diversify the discussion. No one attendee should monopolize the conversation—and no good facilitator should let anyone do it. Dixon says he will pull faculty aside later if they are talking too much in meetings because it bothers other staff and "they will lose faith in you as a leader if you don't handle it," he says. All attendees can share in that responsibility by making an effort to contribute even if public speaking isn't their forte, says Allen. His research has shown that when people make an effort to participate in a meeting—especially when there is a decision-making component—they are happier with the meeting's result and the meeting is more effective.

Move it along. Dixon places a time limit on each discussion item when he plans his faculty meetings and enforces those limits with his smartphone's timer. Another way to prevent run-on discussions and create a sense of urgency, Rogelberg says, is to switch from hourlong weekly or monthly meetings to shorter, more frequent "huddles": 10- to 15-minute meet-ups designed to save time and boost efficiency. If a leader has a difficult time staying on task, any attendee can help move a meeting forward by tactfully redirecting his or her attention to the agenda, says Allen.

Be constructive. Meetings can unravel when attendees cut one another off, dismiss each other, hold side conversations or argue. Avoid such tension, such as by saying, "I agree with some of what you're saying" instead of a short-tempered, "I just don't agree with you," says Brenda Fellows, PhD, of the Haas School of Business, University of California. Along those lines, Dixon advises the department chairs he mentors never to put a contentious issue to a vote in a meeting because it makes people uncomfortable. "Voting only divides, it never unites," he says. "When you resort to a vote, you have stopped talking."

Additional reading

Participate or Else! The Effect of Participation in Decision-Making in Meetings on Employee Engagement
Yoerger, M., Crowe, J., & Allen, J.A. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 2015

Meeting Design Characteristics and Attendee Perceptions of Staff/Team Meeting Quality
Cohen, M.A., Rogelberg, S.G., Allen, J.A., & Luong, A. Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice, 2011

"Not Another Meeting!" Are Meeting Time Demands Related to Employee Well-Being?
Rogelberg, S.G., Leach, D.J., Warr, P.B., & Burnfield, J.L. Journal of Applied Psychology, 2006

By Jamie Chamberlin


This article was originally published in the December 2016 Monitor on Psychology

Did you find this article useful?

3 0
20 Jun 2017

Care and Legal Help for Patients in Need

Care and Legal Help for Patients in Need

Medical-legal partnerships are bringing lawyers and paralegals to health-care teams to improve the health and well-being of underserved populations

When Jack Tsai, PhD, treats veterans at the VA Connecticut Healthcare System, they often have problems that go beyond the scope of his work as a psychologist. Many have post-traumatic stress disorder or cognitive disabilities and are fighting for disability benefits. Others are embroiled in housing disputes, are facing eviction or have already become homeless.

While psychologists can treat their mental health concerns, these veterans need legal help, too. "A lot of these patients have never had anyone advocate for them in court," says Tsai, who has dual appointments at the VA and the Yale School of Medicine.

Enter the medical-legal partnership, or MLP, a model that embeds lawyers and paralegals into health-care teams to detect, address and prevent social conditions that harm health. Those legal experts typically work on-site in health-care settings, either part time or full time, where they can access patients' medical records and even sit in on clinical meetings. The legal services are offered at no charge to the patient. Programs are typically funded through a combination of philanthropy, law schools and civil legal aid agencies, with a handful of contributions from health-care partners.

Psychologists are obvious candidates for getting involved in MLPs, Tsai says. They already have long-term relationships with their clients and understand how their legal problems might be interfering with their mental health and well-being. Plus, psychologists are often accustomed to working on interdisciplinary teams.

Unlike sending patients to a legal aid clinic, Tsai adds, the process is streamlined when the legal team is located inside the hospital. "We can walk patients down the hall and do a warm handoff," he says.

Helping underserved populations

The current MLP model was developed at the Boston Medical Center in 1993 but didn't begin to catch on until the late 2000s when it was embraced by the American Medical Association and the American Academy of Pediatrics. To date, nearly 300 hospitals and health centers nationwide have developed MLPs, according to the National Center for Medical-Legal Partnership.

Adding a legal expert to the team helps underserved populations in a variety of ways: They can help patients apply for food stamps and disability benefits; press landlords to improve substandard housing; help tenants avoid eviction; advocate for special education services; fight employment discrimination; and assist with issues related to immigration, child custody and domestic violence—just some of the many factors that can undermine a patient's health.

"I can't imagine what things would be like without having the MLP, because they do so much," says Britt Nielsen, PsyD, an associate professor at Case Western Reserve University and clinical psychologist at MetroHealth Medical Center in Cleveland. In 2015, the MetroHealth MLP provided assistance to 839 people. Of those, 43 percent had mental health disorders.

MetroHealth began its MLP program 14 years ago in the pediatrics department, Nielsen says. Though it has since expanded to assist adult patients as well, advocating for kids is still a focus. "We do a lot of advocacy as psychologists, talking to teachers or writing letters to a patient's school," Nielsen says. "But MLPs have a great working knowledge of the law, and the things they're able to do go beyond what I can do in a phone call or a letter."

Often, families in underserved populations don't understand what rights they have when it comes to education, living arrangements or Supplemental Security Income, she adds. In addition to helping families directly with legal issues, she says, the MLP has also made physicians more aware of patients' rights, helping to ensure more patients get the services and support they need.

In some cases, MLPs highlight a bigger need that goes beyond a single patient. Nielsen points to a case where a local school district wasn't providing students with the special education services required by law. "The MLP was able to take the district to court and get restitution for those families," she says.

Need for data

While anecdotal evidence suggests MLPs are valuable, few studies have assessed their effectiveness. The National Center for Medical-Legal Partnership is developing metrics to systematically measure the effects of MLPs on patient well-being and health-care costs. Meanwhile, some smaller studies have found the partnerships provide benefits.

A study by Mary M. O'Sullivan, MD, at St. Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital Center in New York City, and colleagues found asthma patients had reductions in asthma medications and their hospital admissions and emergency room visits declined after an MLP was put into place (Journal of Asthma, 2012). And a pilot study of a Tucson-based MLP by Anne M. Ryan, JD, and colleagues at the University of Arizona found patients' perceived stress levels decreased and overall well-being increased after receiving help from an MLP (Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved, 2012).

Evidence also suggests that MLPs make economic sense. In one example, Kerry J. Rodabaugh, MD, at the University of Nebraska Medical Center, and colleagues studied the benefits of an MLP for cancer patients and their health-care institution. Between April 2004 and December 2007, the program assisted terminal patients with legal issues such as guardianship, estate planning and benefits advocacy. During that period, the MLP helped overturn denials of insurance benefits for 17 patients, preventing economic hardship for patients while recovering $923,188 in reimbursements to the hospital (Journal of Palliative Medicine, 2010).

Tsai and his colleagues recently received a grant from the Bristol-Myers Squibb Foundation to evaluate whether the MLP model improves mental health and quality of life for patients at four VA sites in Connecticut and New York over the next two years. Aside from his study, however, little research has been done focusing on the mental health benefits of such programs, he says.

Those data are sorely needed, says Tsai, especially as many MLPs are struggling to find funding through grants and donations. "There's huge potential for mental health researchers to help these legal clinics collect data and evaluate outcomes," he says. "It's an area ripe for psychologists."

For more information on medical-legal partnerships, visit the National Center for Medical-Legal Partnership http://medical-legalpartnership.org.

To watch a video on how medical-legal partnerships work, go to www.youtube.com/watch?v=NdvE5wbumYw.

When Jack Tsai, PhD, treats veterans at the VA Connecticut Healthcare System, they often have problems that go beyond the scope of his work as a psychologist. Many have post-traumatic stress disorder or cognitive disabilities and are fighting for disability benefits. Others are embroiled in housing disputes, are facing eviction or have already become homeless.

While psychologists can treat their mental health concerns, these veterans need legal help, too. "A lot of these patients have never had anyone advocate for them in court," says Tsai, who has dual appointments at the VA and the Yale School of Medicine.

Enter the medical-legal partnership, or MLP, a model that embeds lawyers and paralegals into health-care teams to detect, address and prevent social conditions that harm health. Those legal experts typically work on-site in health-care settings, either part time or full time, where they can access patients' medical records and even sit in on clinical meetings. The legal services are offered at no charge to the patient. Programs are typically funded through a combination of philanthropy, law schools and civil legal aid agencies, with a handful of contributions from health-care partners.

Psychologists are obvious candidates for getting involved in MLPs, Tsai says. They already have long-term relationships with their clients and understand how their legal problems might be interfering with their mental health and well-being. Plus, psychologists are often accustomed to working on interdisciplinary teams.

Unlike sending patients to a legal aid clinic, Tsai adds, the process is streamlined when the legal team is located inside the hospital. "We can walk patients down the hall and do a warm handoff," he says.

Helping underserved populations

The current MLP model was developed at the Boston Medical Center in 1993 but didn't begin to catch on until the late 2000s when it was embraced by the American Medical Association and the American Academy of Pediatrics. To date, nearly 300 hospitals and health centers nationwide have developed MLPs, according to the National Center for Medical-Legal Partnership.

Adding a legal expert to the team helps underserved populations in a variety of ways: They can help patients apply for food stamps and disability benefits; press landlords to improve substandard housing; help tenants avoid eviction; advocate for special education services; fight employment discrimination; and assist with issues related to immigration, child custody and domestic violence—just some of the many factors that can undermine a patient's health.

"I can't imagine what things would be like without having the MLP, because they do so much," says Britt Nielsen, PsyD, an associate professor at Case Western Reserve University and clinical psychologist at MetroHealth Medical Center in Cleveland. In 2015, the MetroHealth MLP provided assistance to 839 people. Of those, 43 percent had mental health disorders.

MetroHealth began its MLP program 14 years ago in the pediatrics department, Nielsen says. Though it has since expanded to assist adult patients as well, advocating for kids is still a focus. "We do a lot of advocacy as psychologists, talking to teachers or writing letters to a patient's school," Nielsen says. "But MLPs have a great working knowledge of the law, and the things they're able to do go beyond what I can do in a phone call or a letter."

Often, families in underserved populations don't understand what rights they have when it comes to education, living arrangements or Supplemental Security Income, she adds. In addition to helping families directly with legal issues, she says, the MLP has also made physicians more aware of patients' rights, helping to ensure more patients get the services and support they need.

In some cases, MLPs highlight a bigger need that goes beyond a single patient. Nielsen points to a case where a local school district wasn't providing students with the special education services required by law. "The MLP was able to take the district to court and get restitution for those families," she says.

Need for data

While anecdotal evidence suggests MLPs are valuable, few studies have assessed their effectiveness. The National Center for Medical-Legal Partnership is developing metrics to systematically measure the effects of MLPs on patient well-being and health-care costs. Meanwhile, some smaller studies have found the partnerships provide benefits.

A study by Mary M. O'Sullivan, MD, at St. Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital Center in New York City, and colleagues found asthma patients had reductions in asthma medications and their hospital admissions and emergency room visits declined after an MLP was put into place (Journal of Asthma, 2012). And a pilot study of a Tucson-based MLP by Anne M. Ryan, JD, and colleagues at the University of Arizona found patients' perceived stress levels decreased and overall well-being increased after receiving help from an MLP (Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved, 2012).

Evidence also suggests that MLPs make economic sense. In one example, Kerry J. Rodabaugh, MD, at the University of Nebraska Medical Center, and colleagues studied the benefits of an MLP for cancer patients and their health-care institution. Between April 2004 and December 2007, the program assisted terminal patients with legal issues such as guardianship, estate planning and benefits advocacy. During that period, the MLP helped overturn denials of insurance benefits for 17 patients, preventing economic hardship for patients while recovering $923,188 in reimbursements to the hospital (Journal of Palliative Medicine, 2010).

Tsai and his colleagues recently received a grant from the Bristol-Myers Squibb Foundation to evaluate whether the MLP model improves mental health and quality of life for patients at four VA sites in Connecticut and New York over the next two years. Aside from his study, however, little research has been done focusing on the mental health benefits of such programs, he says.

Those data are sorely needed, says Tsai, especially as many MLPs are struggling to find funding through grants and donations. "There's huge potential for mental health researchers to help these legal clinics collect data and evaluate outcomes," he says. "It's an area ripe for psychologists."

For more information on medical-legal partnerships, visit the National Center for Medical-Legal Partnership http://medical-legalpartnership.org.

To watch a video on how medical-legal partnerships work, go to www.youtube.com/watch?v=NdvE5wbumYw.

Additional reading

  • Medical-Legal Partnerships: Transforming Primary Care by Addressing the Legal Needs of Vulnerable Populations, Sandel, M., Hansen, M., Kahn, R., Lawton, E., Paul, E., Parker, V., Morton, S., and Zuckerman, B. Health Affairs, 2010
  • The State of the Medical-Legal Partnership Field: Findings from the 2015 National Center for Medical-Legal Partnership Surveys, Regenstein, M., Sharac, J., and Trott, J.

By Kirsten Weir 


This article was originally published in the November 2016 Monitor on Psychology

Did you find this article useful?

0 0
20 Jun 2017

NIH Toolbox Offers Easier Data Collection

NIH Toolbox Offers Easier Data Collection

The set of measures is useful for both researchers and clinicians alike—and can save money and time over traditional tools

For years, neurobehavioral researchers often couldn't compare data across studies or even within the same longitudinal study because they lacked a "common currency" for collecting data on various aspects of research participants' functioning.

"People used all sorts of different measures and assessments," says Molly V. Wagster, PhD, a psychologist who heads the behavioral and systems neuroscience branch in the National Institute on Aging's neuroscience division. And because there were different tests for different age groups, she says, "people had to resort to all sorts of different measures to follow someone over a period of time." Plus, she adds, researchers looking for quick-and-easy assessments sometimes resorted to tools designed for diagnosing disorders, not assessing function.

Now all that has changed, thanks to the National Institutes of Health's creation of the NIH Toolbox® for Assessment of Neurological and Behavioral Function. Developed by more than 250 scientists, many of them psychologists, the toolbox offers brief measures—some already existing and some created especially for the project—for assessing cognitive, emotional, sensory and motor functioning in research participants ages 3 to 85.

Introduced in 2012 and adapted for the iPad in 2015, the NIH Toolbox offers researchers a comprehensive set of tools for collecting data that can be compared across existing and future studies, says Wagster, the lead federal project officer for the toolbox.

The NIH Toolbox saves researchers time, says psychologist Richard C. Gershon, PhD, the NIH Toolbox's principal investigator and a professor at Northwestern University's Feinberg School of Medicine. "You can administer the equivalent of a one- or two-day neuropsych battery in two hours," says Gershon. The complete cognition battery can be administered in about 30 minutes.

The toolbox can also save money, says Gershon. Take the test used to assess people's sense of balance, which could be used to gauge older people's risk of falling. "Our test arguably replaces between $10,000 and $100,000 worth of equipment with a $160 iPad," he says.

Clinical psychologists could find the NIH Toolbox useful, too, says Abigail B. Sivan, PhD, an associate professor of clinical psychiatry and behavioral sciences at Northwestern, who helped develop it. In the future, a clinical psychologist might use the toolbox's assessments to help distinguish between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and anxiety, for example, or between Alzheimer's disease and normal age-related changes in memory, she says. Clinicians could also use the NIH Toolbox to track patients' progress over time, she says.

Available as an app at iTunes, the NIH Toolbox can be downloaded on up to 10 iPads for an annual subscription fee of $500. Users can try it out for free for 60 days.

For more information, visit www.nihtoolbox.org.

By Rebecca  A. Clay


This article was originally published in the December 2016 Monitor on Psychology

Did you find this article useful?

0 0
20 Jun 2017

Psychology Offers Many Options When It’s Time to Take a Different Direction

Psychology Offers Many Options When It’s Time to Take a Different Direction
Patricia Arredondo, EdD, had been working as an assistant professor for three years at Boston University when she realized she had to re-route her career plans. Even though she had a strong track record of publications and was leading a three-year federally funded grant, a professor told her she was not going to get tenure.

The news rattled her confidence, but also fueled her motivation to seek out alternatives. So, she attended career planning workshops and evaluated her interests and skills. At a guided meditation at one of the workshops, Arredondo imagined what she wanted to be doing in 10 years, and envisioned a job that would allow more creativity and interaction with the public.

That reflection led her to launch Empowerment Workshops Inc., a consulting business focused on helping companies create and implement a diversity strategy in the workplace, often working to increase the presence of women and ethnic minorities. "Each time it was like working with a new client in therapy because every organization had a different narrative to tell, and the variety gave me an opportunity to be creative and adaptable," she says.

Arredondo later returned to academia when she was ready for another transition, and eventually moved into administrative roles at several universities. Her latest position was president of the Chicago School of Professional Psychology, Chicago campus.

Arredondo's story is just one example of a psychologist who for one reason or another decided to make a career change.

"We all experience some type of work transition whether we choose it or not," says Patrick Rottinghaus, PhD, an associate professor of counseling psychology at the University of Missouri in Columbia. "The occupational landscape is different now than in the past. Most people shift careers multiple times."

Some are forced to make changes involuntarily when there are layoffs, an organization closes or senior workers are asked to retire, says Nadya Fouad, PhD, chair of educational psychology at the University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee. Some make subtle changes by, for example, moving from one practice specialty area to another. Others retire and take on psychology-related volunteer work. Others voluntarily opt to revamp their careers when they start feeling restless or want to gain new expertise.

"Most people who choose to make a change voluntarily have been thinking about it for a long time," says Sue Motulsky, EdD, associate professor of counseling and psychology at Lesley University in Massachusetts. "They may start noticing signs of burnout, such as loss of interest in what they're doing, mistakes and lack of judgment or increased impatience."

Whatever the reasons may be for contemplating a new direction, the prospect of making a career shift can be daunting. Here's some advice from experts in vocational psychology and psychologists who have successfully navigated a transition.

See a career counselor

The process of career transition is not easy, and it is especially difficult to do in isolation, says Motulsky, who maintains a private practice in career counseling in addition to her work as a professor. "This is almost impossible to do by yourself, and a counselor will help you start the journey of exploring your options."

A counselor can provide self-assessment inventories that will tease out vocational interests, skills, values and life roles, which all come into play when making a career change, explains Rottinghaus. Motulsky also encourages psychologists to consider seeing a career counselor who has a doctorate because he or she will understand what is involved in earning this degree and how that investment of time and money can influence career decisions.

Listening to your frustration can be good

Sherry Benton, PhDSherry Benton, PhD, felt overwhelmed by the demands of directing a university counseling center, but her frustration took her in a different direction.

"I really liked doing therapy and working with students, but I found it intolerable that we didn't have the capacity to treat everyone who needed help," says Benton, who directed the Counseling & Wellness Center at the University of Florida. "If we made students wait a month for an appointment, that could have a significant impact on their well-being."

She searched for models to increase access and capacity, and discovered a tool in Australia that used brief phone contact with a therapist and online educational modules to teach cognitive behavioral strategies. She created her own version of the program, which included interactive online education and a dashboard that enabled therapists to track a patient's progress. For example, therapists could see details of patient entries in the interactive exercises and how patients were rating their behavioral health at different points in time. She tried the new model at the wellness center, and it was so successful that she started a business to market the product.

Benton hired four employees, and TAO (Therapist Assisted Online) officially launched in July 2015. TAO offers online tools for client education, interaction, accountability and progress assessment. For example, the modules include animation and real actors portraying situations that clients can relate to as well as interactive exercises.

"It's really scary and completely worth it," Benton says. "It's satisfying to pursue your dream and make it happen, but it's not easy. I would describe it as a mix of elation and terror."

Be honest with yourself

Robert Youmans, PhD and familyRobert Youmans, PhD, started his career as an assistant professor specializing in applied cognition, but he slowly discovered that the world of academia what not what he had envisioned. Although he enjoyed teaching—first at California State University, Northridge, then at George Mason University in Virginia—it was difficult to find funding in his area of interest, design thinking and processes.

Living on a faculty salary was also trying, and he started consulting on the side to supplement his income. He founded Human Factors Design Consulting and worked with companies that needed his expertise in user experience research. The work was lucrative, and he enjoyed building new products. "It was an odd experience," he says. "On one hand, I had more work offers coming in from companies than I had time to accept, but at the same time I had trouble getting funding to study those areas within academia."

He made numerous contacts through his business, and they would often suggest that he apply for full-time positions at their companies, but he wasn't ready to leave academia. Finally, in 2013 he was open to a career change. He and his wife were expecting their first child, which elevated his sense of financial responsibility. In 2014, he accepted a position as a user-experience researcher in a product area called Streams, Photos and Sharing at Google.

"When I was younger I had these romantic notions of what it meant to be a professor, but the day-to-day of being a professor wasn't always what I had hoped it would be," Youmans says. He knew he would miss teaching, and was nervous about leaving his colleagues and job security, but he hasn't looked back. "Now I'm doing interesting and rigorous science research—and I earn many times what I earned in academia," he says.

Be open to change

Andrew Adler, EdD, had worked as a school psychologist in Nashville, Tennessee, for 28 years when he started considering retirement. He was surprised when a recruiter called to see if he was interested in a job as a mental health clinical director contracted to the Tennessee Department of Correction. He had experience working with students whose parents were incarcerated, and had previously consulted as a psychologist in the Tennessee prison system. So, recognizing he had the right background, he accepted the job in 2012.

"School psychology set me up well for working in a prison," Adler says. "Prisons, like schools, serve all of society and have people with a range of social problems and diagnoses. Inmates are ripe for remedial and rehabilitative support."

Like Adler, Joyce Jadwin, PsyD, started working in the prison system a few years ago. Unlike him, it was her first full-time job as a psychologist. She managed a program for female sex offenders in Ohio, but after a year in the role she realized the work was not a match with her interests.

"I wanted to use skills beyond being an individual provider," says Jadwin, who had worked as a college administrator before she earned her doctorate in psychology. "I was used to making independent decisions and influencing policy and procedure."

Jadwin applied for a role as assistant director of faculty development in the medical school at Ohio University, and got the job. "My psychology training allows me to bring a clinical perspective to my role, which gives me credibility with physicians because I understand what they are going through in the medical world."

Start now

Although it's natural to implement many of these strategies when a job transition is imminent, Rottinghaus urges psychologists to take time to nurture career development each year. He often uses Jane Goodman's "Dental Model," which advises people to conduct a career check-up annually, like a regular visit to the dentist. Taking time regularly to evaluate job satisfaction and reiterate long-term goals can reduce the chances of frustration later, he says.

"Strategically engage with mentors over time, even when times are good," Rottinghaus says. "Once you get out into the workforce, nurture those mentoring relationships so you can articulate your professional objectives. Mentors are there to provide support, and they may have connections if you need to transition into another role or setting."

Without such strategies and an overall plan to guide them, people are at risk of letting others define their career trajectories and reacting to events rather than defining their own future, he says. In fact, most people who make a career transition wish they had done it sooner, says Motulsky.

"If you let yourself explore different options that you are drawn to, you may discover something that will make life more satisfying and meaningful," she says. "I've seen many people go through the career process and find a job that makes them far happier, which is important because most people spend a lot of time at work."

Ready for a change?

  1. Talk to a career counselor to guide you through self-assessment.
  2. Listen to your frustrations since they can lead you to new paths.
  3. Do a gut check. Is this really what you want in your life?
  4. Don't wait. Most people who make a switch wish they had done it sooner.

By Heather Stringer


This article was originally published in the September 2016 Monitor on Psychology

Did you find this article useful?

0 0
20 Jun 2017

New Licensure Test on the Horizon

New Licensure Test on the Horizon

A new licensure test is on the horizon. What is it and why is it necessary?

The Association of State and Provincial Psychology Boards (ASPPB) announced in March that its board of directors had approved a plan to develop an additional licensure exam that would complement the existing test. The new exam, called the EPPP (Examination of Professional Practice in Psychology) Step 2, would focus on assessing skills, while the existing EPPP would continue to test knowledge.

The announcement about the EPPP-2, which may become a requirement as early as January 2019, is evoking mixed responses in the psychology community.  

"I can definitely support the idea that there is a need to test skills because there are inconsistencies in training, but I'm worried that it will be expensive and yet another hoop that students are going to have to deal with," says Christine Jehu, PhD, chair of the American Psychological Association of Graduate Students (APAGS).

For others, the announcement was primarily welcome and perhaps long overdue news. "The competency movement has been going on for 30 years in psychology, and this new test is very consistent with a number of initiatives APA has been involved with," says Catherine Grus, PhD, deputy director of APA's Education Directorate.

In 2004, for example, APA formed a task force that studied then-current practices in competency assessment within psychology and other health professions. Two years later, the group released a report recommending that psychology develop a mechanism to test knowledge, skills and attitudes. The EPPP tests knowledge, but not skills and attitudes, Grus says.

"There are hundreds of different psychology training programs and practicum and internship sites, all with different supervisors and no common standard," says ASPPB CEO Stephen DeMers, EdD. "We have to find a way to keep the process of education credible and the profession relevant."

While APA accreditation holds schools to a certain standard of education, relatively few states have licensing laws that require psychologists to graduate from an accredited school. Even if all states required graduation from an accredited program, the field still needs to develop a method of screening candidates for licensure, DeMers says. "Accreditation evaluates an entire program, but licensure depends on competency of an individual," he says.

A test of skills is also in line with competency testing models used for other medical professionals such as MDs, says Eddy Ameen, PhD, director of APA's Office on Early Career Psychologists. "Proper competency assessment is an important part of what it means to be a psychologist. It ensures that all who treat the public have a minimum universal skill set."  

DeMers hopes that the EPPP Step 2 ultimately will help psychologists increase their clout when lobbying third-party payers for reimbursement coverage and government agencies for federal programs. "I think we lose opportunities in these areas when we are not demonstrating a maintenance of competence," he says. "For that reason, I think this change is exciting and also necessary." 

The path to a new test

The ASPPB initially explored the idea of developing a skill-based exam in the 1990s when it investigated an approach called latent image testing that was touted as a method of evaluating an applicant's decision-making process during a practice scenario. It was a paper-and-pencil version of today's electronic adaptive testing, which tracks the number of correct responses and how efficiently people move through a test. ASPPB abandoned the idea because it was cumbersome and did not seem to adequately assess the complex decision-making involved in psychology treatment scenarios, DeMers says.

ASPPB revisited the concept of competency testing about eight years ago, and in 2010, appointed a task force to review the literature on the topic. The group started gathering information from other professions (such as medicine, nursing and pharmacy) that were already involved in skill-based assessments and surveyed licensed psychologists to determine the criteria for the skills testing.

The task force suggested that ASPPB move forward with developing a skill-based test that would assess competency in the following areas: scientific orientation, professional practice, relational competence, professionalism, ethical practice and systems thinking.

Who, when and how much?

While there may be advantages to updating the licensing process, ASPPB recognizes another expensive test may seem daunting to new graduates. Many new graduates already carry considerable debt and are paying multiple fees for state boards where they are applying to practice, Jehu says.

ASPPB's goal is to keep the cost of Step 2 comparable to the EPPP, which is about $700, DeMers says. This will be challenging because the new test will likely use more expensive technology than Step 1, such as computer-based simulation, taped scenarios and possibly avatars.

"There will be a lot of upfront costs, but this has to happen and it's our job to make it as low-cost as possible," DeMers says.

In addition to cost concerns, some early career psychologists question whether it is wise to wait until the conclusion of training to weed out potentially incompetent psychologists. "If the goal is to be consistent with other degree programs, then why would we wait until so much later than medical programs, which test individuals throughout their training program as a uniform national standard?" says Samantha Rafie, PhD, an early career psychologist at Bay Area Pain and Wellness Center in California.

DeMers says that once the EPPP-2 is available, it may be possible to begin offering Step 1 before internship. This would mean the first test could be given immediately following coursework when knowledge is easier to recall. This could potentially reduce the need for people to spend money on expensive test preparation materials, he says.

"Moving the first test earlier could also allow students to use loan money to help cover the cost of the test," Jehu says. "There would also be more peer support when studying for the test if students are still at school."

Another question within the psychology community is who will be required to take the test. Rafie is already licensed, and she is concerned that she would have to take EPPP-2 if she wanted to move outside of California to practice. ASPPB will recommend that its member jurisdictions not require Step 2 for previously licensed psychologists with no record of complaints or discipline, DeMers says. For those who will be seeking a license after Step 2 is required, ASPPB will recommend to its member groups that psychologists only take it once to work in any state or Canadian province.

What's next

Before ASPPB will be ready to start offering the test, the organization needs to develop a blueprint for the exam, train psychologists to write the questions and conduct beta testing. They welcome help from psychologists who are interested in writing questions for the test or beta testing it. People interested in helping can email ASPPB Chief Operating Officer Carol Webb at cwebb@asppb.org.

Although the Step 2 is a costly and time-consuming endeavor for both ASPPB and graduates of the future, Grus is optimistic that advantages of updating the testing process will be felt throughout the psychology community.

"ASPPB has to be responsive to a society that trusts psychology to be a profession that is populated by individuals who are well trained," Grus says. "I think Step 2 will establish that psychologists are holding themselves accountable and we value our profession."

By Heather Stringer


This article was originally published in the July/August 2016 Monitor on Psychology

Did you find this article useful?

0 1
19 Jun 2017

Managing Staff and Organizations in Support of Practice Excellence

Whether you have one part-time clinical or administrative staff member, or you are an owner of a large inter-disciplinary group, you are an employer. Having employees (or independent contractors) adds complexity and responsibility. This webinar focuses on addressing these demands to promote excellence in service delivery via employment contracts, policies and procedures, and mentoring to promote staff development. During this presentation you will learn the following:

• Your practice as an employer
• Are you a "family"? - The importance of contracts, policies and procedures
• Integrating your vision into management decisions
• Hiring staff (challenges, 1099 or W-2, compensation and benefits)
• Ethical and regulatory compliance (HIPAA, 1099, interviewing, sexual harassment, etc.)
• Mentorship and staff development (administrative and clinical)

Learning Objectives 1
List the advantages of having contracts as well as policies and procedures as part of the administrative structure of their practice.

Learning Objective 2
Describe the intersection of running a practice with professional ethics and regulatory obligations.

Learning Objective 3
Discuss the importance of effectively mentoring staff and promoting staff development.

*This program does not offer CE credit.

ZimmermanPresenter
Dr. Jeff Zimmerman has been in independent practice for over 35 years in solo practice and as founding and managing partner of an inter-disciplinary multi-site group. Dr. Zimmerman is a founding partner of The Practice Institute, LLC. He is President of the Society for the Advancement of Psychotherapy, Division 29. Dr. Zimmerman is co-author of The Ethics of Private Practice: A Guide for Mental Health Clinicians. He is co-editor of a soon to be released book entitled the Handbook of Private Practice: Keys to Success for Mental Health Practitioners and is Editor of Practice Innovations, the journal of Division 42.

 

Did you find this webinar useful?

0 0
07 Jun 2017

How to Create and Implement a Vision for Your Practice

Creating a vision is essential for the decision-making that follows as you develop your practice. This webinar focuses on how to create such an over-arching vision and how to use it to guide both clinical and practice/administrative decisions. During this presentation you will learn the following:

• why a vision statement is important
• types of vision statements
• tips for creating your vision
• making your vision real - inside and out
• using vision and values to guide clinical/practice decisions.

Learning Objectives 1
List the advantages of having a practice vision.

Learning Objectives 2
Describe the central elements of a vision statement.

Learning Objectives 3
Write their own practice vision.

*This program does not offer CE credit.

ZimmermanPresenter
Dr. Jeff Zimmerman has been in independent practice for over 35 years in solo practice and as founding and managing partner of an inter-disciplinary multi-site group. Dr. Zimmerman is a founding partner of The Practice Institute, LLC. He is President of the Society for the Advancement of Psychotherapy, Division 29. Dr. Zimmerman is co-author of The Ethics of Private Practice: A Guide for Mental Health Clinicians. He is co-editor of a soon to be released book entitled the Handbook of Private Practice: Keys to Success for Mental Health Practitioners and is Editor of Practice Innovations, the journal of Division 42.

Did you find this webinar useful?

0 0
06 Jun 2017

Protecting Patient Privacy When the Court Calls

Protecting Patient Privacy When the Court Calls

Psychologists are obligated to protect their clients' records. So what do they do when they are presented with a subpoena or asked to testify?

Over the course of their careers, many psychologists will receive subpoenas directing them to disclose or testify about a client's records or test data. Such requests can put psychologists in a quandary: As practitioners, they are well versed in the ethical, professional and legal obligations related to maintaining patient confidentiality, so how can they release such records?

In an effort to guide psychologists in this area, APA's Committee on Legal Issues recently updated its article on understanding subpoenas, seeking to offer strategies that psychologists may use to respond to subpoenas or compelled court testimony. While this article is not intended to establish standards of care or conduct for practitioners, it seeks to address several common questions psychologists have when responding to such legal requests. It is important to note that this article does not provide legal advice, nor is it intended to be or substitute for the advice of an attorney.

Psychologists who receive a subpoena or other legal process that requires or is likely to require production of client/patient records or test data, manuals, protocols, or other test information are encouraged to consult legal counsel who can review the pertinent law and facts and provide appropriate legal assistance.

Understanding subpoenas

From the legal system's perspective, the more relevant information that a judge or jury considers in a court case, the fairer the decision. To obtain this material, the court may issue subpoenas (legal commands to appear to provide testimony) or subpoenas duces tecum (legal commands to appear and bring along specific documents). A court may also issue a court order requiring a party to provide testimony or produce documents.

Unless the issuing attorney or court excuses the psychologist, the psychologist must respond to a subpoena — that is, to be at a particular place at a particular time. Responding to the subpoena, however, does not necessarily mean that the psychologist must disclose confidential information requested in the subpoena. Before a psychologist does so, he or she should ensure that the subpoena is valid and that the conditions for disclosing confidential information are met — such as with a client's consent, a protective order or other legal mandate. In contrast to a subpoena, when a court order for testimony or documents is issued and any attempt to have the court vacate or modify its order has been unsuccessful, a psychologist may be held in contempt of court if he or she fails to comply with the court order.

Unfortunately, the demands of the legal system may conflict with psychologists' responsibility to maintain client confidentiality. This responsibility arises from tenets of good clinical practice, ethical standards, professional licensing laws, and other applicable statutes and legal precedent. In many contexts, client information may also fall under an evidentiary privilege, which protects the client information from being considered as evidence by the legal fact-finder in the case.

Most state and federal jurisdictions allow a client to prevent confidential material that he or she has conveyed to a psychologist from being communicated to others in legal settings, but there are some variations from state to state and between some state and federal courts, and there are significant exceptions (such as cases where the client herself has put her mental health at issue in the litigation). In general, the psychologist has a responsibility to maintain confidentiality and to assert the psychotherapist–patient privilege on behalf of the client unless the client has explicitly waived privilege or signed a valid release, a legally recognized exception to privilege exists, or the court orders the psychologist to turn over the client's information.

The clinical record, any separately kept psychotherapy notes, client information forms, billing records and other such information usually may be turned over to the court with appropriate authorization by the client or with a court order. Psychologists required to comply with provisions of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA) would need a HIPAA-compliant authorization form to release such information, and a separate authorization for release of psychotherapy notes if those notes are developed in strict compliance with the HIPAA definition of psychotherapy notes.

Otherwise, notes of psychotherapy sessions are treated in the same manner as the remainder of the clinical record or file. In cases in which clients do not authorize release of their records, HIPAA details procedures that a psychologist may follow upon receiving a subpoena not accompanied by a court order to disclose those materials. These issues emphasize an important practice tip: At the beginning of treatment, psychologists should inform their clients in the informed consent document and first session discussions of the risk that their confidential information may be disclosed in response to a subpoena or court order.

A request for psychological test data and test materials present other concerns. Although a client's test data (including raw and scaled scores and client responses to test questions or stimuli) may be released in response to a proper subpoena, the disclosure of test materials (including manuals, instruments, protocols and test questions) may require the safeguard of a protective order from the court. The APA Ethics Code requires psychologists to "make reasonable efforts to maintain the integrity and security of test materials and other assessment techniques consistent with law . . ." in order to not threaten the validity of psychological tests and their value as a measurement tools (APA Ethics Code, Standards 9.04, 9.11).

Psychologists have numerous ethical, professional and legal obligations related to the release of client records, test data and other information in the legal context. Many of these obligations may favor disclosure, including, in particular, the general obligation of all citizens to give truthful and complete testimony when required to do so. But there are often conflicting duties and principles that favor withholding such information. These may include obligations to:

  • Clients or other individuals who receive treatment and/or are given psychological tests.
  • The public (to avoid public dissemination of test items, questions, protocols or other test information that could adversely affect the integrity and continued validity of tests).
  • Test publishers, including contractual obligations between the psychologist and test publishers not to disclose test information and obligations under the copyright laws.
  • Other third parties, such as employers.

A special type of third-party obligation may arise in forensic contexts if, for example, a psychologist performed work with a litigant for an attorney. In such cases, the key concern is whether records from that work with the litigant is protected from disclosure under the attorney work product privilege.

Strategies for dealing with subpoenas

Psychologists, in consultation with an attorney if needed, should consider six strategies when issued a subpoena:

1. Determine whether the request for information carries the force of law

The psychologist must establish whether he or she has received a legally valid demand for disclosing test data and client records. For example, to be valid, a subpoena should generally allow sufficient time to respond to the demand for materials and provide for some time for the opposing side to quash such a demand if appropriate. If a demand is not legally enforceable for any reason, then the psychologist has no legal obligation to comply with it and may have no legal obligation to respond.

Even a demand that claims to be legally enforceable may not be. For example, the court issuing the subpoena may not have jurisdiction over the psychologist or his or her records: A subpoena issued in one state, for example, may not be legally binding on a psychologist who lives and works in another state. Or, the subpoena may not have been properly served to the psychologist — some states may require service in person or by certified mail. A psychologist should consult with an attorney in making such a determination.

If the psychologist concludes that the demand is legally valid, then a formal response to the attorney or court is required, whether it is compliance with or opposition to the demand, in whole or in part. A psychologist's obligation to respond to the subpoena is not necessarily the same as those under a court order (see below under "File a motion to quash the subpoena or file a protective order").

2. Contact the client

Clients may have a legally protected interest in preserving the confidentiality of their records. So, if a psychologist receives a subpoena or notice requiring that he or she divulge a client's records or test data, the psychologist may discuss the implications of the demand with the client (or his or her legal guardian). The psychologist may also consult with the client's attorney when appropriate and with the client's valid consent.

When talking with the client, the psychologist should explain which information has been demanded, the purpose of the demand, the entities or individuals to whom the information is to be provided, and the possible scope of further disclosure by those entities or individuals. After that discussion, a legally competent client or the client's legal guardian may consent to allow the psychologist to produce the data. Generally, such consent is required to be in writing, which helps to avoid future conflicts or legal entanglements with the client over the release of confidential tests or other records. The client's consent may not, however, resolve the potential confidentiality claims of third parties (such as test publishers).

The psychologist may want to emphasize to the client that when he or she agrees to release information requested, he or she cannot specify or limit which information is released. Rather, the entire record — including psychotherapy notes, billing records, administrative notes and more — will be available. The scope of the release may be the subject of negotiation among attorneys, however, so if the psychologist believes that a release would harm the client, he or she should voice his or her concerns and object to the release on that basis.

3. Negotiate with the requester

If a client does not consent to release the requested information, the psychologist — often through counsel — may seek to prevent disclosure through discussions with legal counsel for the requesting party. The psychologist's position in such discussions may be bolstered by legal arguments against disclosure, including the psychologist's duties under evidence rules regarding psychotherapist–patient privilege. These rules often allow the psychologist to assert privilege on behalf of the client in the absence of a specific release or court order. (Some possible arguments are outlined in the section below, "Consider possible grounds for opposing or limiting production of client records or test data.") Such negotiations may explore whether there are ways to achieve the requesting party's objectives without divulging confidential information, perhaps by disclosing nonconfidential materials instead. Psychologists may also be able to negotiate to avoid compelled testimony.

4. File a motion to quash the subpoena or file a protective order

If negotiation is not successful, it may be necessary to file a motion for relief from the obligations imposed by the demand for confidential records.

motion to quash is a formal application made to a court or judge to have a subpoena vacated or declared invalid. There may be grounds for asserting that the subpoena or request for testimony should be quashed, in whole or in part. For example, the information sought may be protected by the psychotherapist–client privilege and therefore may not be subject to discovery, or it may not be relevant to the issues before the court (see below in the section "Consider possible grounds for opposing or limiting production of client records or test data"). This strategy may be used alone or in combination with a motion for a protective order.

A motion for a protective order assumes that the psychologist will produce the information asked for by the subpoena but asks that the court protect it from the untoward consequences of disclosing information. The primary focus of this strategy is to prevent or limit the number of people who see sensitive client and test information. A motion for protective order can establish procedures to note the materials as confidential and have them placed under seal, which prevents their disclosure to the public.

Generally, the motion may state that the psychologist is ethically obligated not to produce the confidential records or test data or to testify, unless compelled by the court or with the consent of the client. It may include a request that the court consider the psychologist's obligations to adhere to federal requirements (such as HIPAA) and to protect the interests of the client, the interests of third parties (such as test publishers), and the public's interest in preserving the integrity and continued validity of the tests themselves. The motion might also attempt to suggest ways to minimize the adverse consequences of a disclosure. For example, the psychologist may suggest that the court:

  • Direct the psychologist to provide test data only to another appropriately qualified professional designated by the court or by the party seeking the information.
  • Limit the use of client records or test data to prevent wide dissemination. For example, the court might order that the information be delivered to the court, be kept under seal, and be used solely for the purposes of the litigation and that all copies of the data be returned to the psychologist after the litigation is terminated.
  • Limit the categories of information that must be produced. For example, client records may contain confidential information about a third party, such as a spouse, who may have independent interests in maintaining confidentiality, and such data may be of minimal or no relevance to the issues before the court.
  • Determine for itself, through a nonpublic hearing or a review by the judge in chambers, whether the use of the client records or test data is relevant to the issues before the court or whether they might be insulated from disclosure, in whole or in part, by the therapist–client privilege or another privilege (such as attorney–client privilege).
  • Deny or limit the demand because it is unduly burdensome on the psychologist (see, e.g., Federal Rule of Civil Procedure 45(c)).
  • Shield "psychotherapy notes" if the psychologist keeps separate psychotherapy notes as defined by the Privacy Rule (see Security and Privacy, 2015).
5. Determine whether to testify

If a psychologist is asked to disclose confidential information during questioning at a deposition, he or she may refuse to answer the question only if the information is privileged. If there is a reasonable basis for asserting a privilege, the psychologist may refuse to provide test data or client records until ordered to by the court.

A psychologist who refuses to answer questions without a reasonable basis may be penalized by the court, which may include requiring the psychologist to pay the requesting parties' costs and fees in obtaining court enforcement of the subpoena. For these reasons, it is advisable that a psychologist be represented by his or her own counsel at the deposition.

6. Consider possible grounds for opposing or limiting production of client records or test data

There are several options for resisting a demand to produce confidential client information. They include that:

  • The court does not have jurisdiction over the psychologist, the client records, or the test data or the psychologist did not receive a legally sufficient demand asking him or her to produce the information.
  • The psychologist does not have custody or control of the records or test data that are sought — for example, they may belong to the psychologist's employer, not to the psychologist.
  • The therapist–client privilege insulates the records or test data from disclosure. The rationale for the privilege, recognized in many states, is that the openness necessary for effective therapy requires clients to expect that all records of therapy, contents of therapeutic disclosures and test data will remain confidential. Disclosure would be a serious invasion of the client's privacy. The psychologist is under an ethical obligation to protect the client's reasonable expectations of confidentiality (APA Ethics Code, Ethical Standards, Section 4). There are important exceptions to this protection that negate the privilege. For example, if a client or former client is a party to the litigation and has raised his or her mental state as an issue in the proceeding, the client may have waived the psychotherapist-patient privilege. This varies by jurisdiction, with most jurisdictions holding a broad patient-litigant exception to privilege, with a few construing the patient-litigant exception much more narrowly. It is important that the psychologist be aware of the law in the relevant jurisdiction since this may ultimately control the issue about release of (otherwise) confidential client information. In this circumstance, the fact that a client who is a party to a legal case does not want to consent to release of information may not ultimately be dispositive on the issue. In such a case, the psychologist should discuss the issue of potential patient-litigant exception with the client's attorney, to determine if the records will need to be turned over due to the exception and to obtain any needed authorizations from the client.
  • The information sought is not relevant to the issues before the court.
  • Public dissemination of test information, such as manuals or protocols, may harm the public interest because it may affect responses of future test populations.
  • Test publishers have an interest in the protection of test information, and the psychologist may have a contractual or other legal obligation (e.g., copyright laws) not to disclose such information.
  • Psychologists have an ethical obligation to protect the integrity and security of test information and data, including protecting the intellectual property and unauthorized test disclosure, and to avoid misuse of assessment techniques and data. Psychologists are also ethically obligated to take reasonable steps to prevent others from misusing such information.
  • Some court rules allow the party receiving the subpoena to object to the subpoena's demand or ask that the demand be limited on the basis that it imposes an undue burden on the recipient (see, e.g., Rule 45(c) of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, 2014).

Ultimately, the judge's ruling controls in a court. Psychologists who are not violating human rights and who take reasonable steps to follow Standard 1.02 of the Ethics Code and inform the court of their requirements under the Ethics Code will not be subject to disciplinary procedures for complying with a court order directing them to produce information. Protecting patient privacy when the court calls can be complicated. To respond appropriately, psychologists should weigh ethical responsibilities and legal demands. Psychologists who have questions should consult legal counsel.

By APA’s Committee on Legal Issues


This article is condensed from "Strategies for Private Practitioners Coping With Subpoenas or Compelled Testimony for Client Records or Test Data or Test Materials," which appeared in Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, Vol. 47(1), Feb 2016, 1–11. To read the full article, which includes all citations and appendices, go to www.apa.org/about/offices/ogc/private-practitioners.pdf (PDF, 260KB).

Did you find this article useful?

0 0
06 Jun 2017

Predatory Publishers Increasingly Targeting Psychologists, Social Scientists

Predatory Publishers Increasingly Targeting Psychologists, Social Scientists

Publishing in peer-reviewed journals can be rewarding — it allows us to share our research with peers and can advance academic careers. However, it can also be difficult and frustrating. Journals on average reject 75 percent of submissions, according to an APA report (American Psychologist, 2014). Peer review can take months and often requires authors to make significant changes to articles prior to publication.

So just imagine the joy psychologists might experience upon receiving an email from a journal (with a name very similar to a respectable APA journal) that invites them personally to submit a paper for a forthcoming issue. The journal promises peer review within one week and publication within two weeks. Imagine further that the journal claims to have a high impact factor, partly due to the fact that its content is freely available worldwide.

As the old adage goes: If it sounds too good to be true, it probably is. Unfortunately, there is a high likelihood that such an invitation has been sent by a "predatory publisher." While these publishers initially focused on biomedical sciences, a growing number now target psychologists and social scientists.

What are predatory publishers?

Predatory publishers are counterfeit scholarly publishers that aim to trick honest researchers into thinking they are legitimate. They use spam email to solicit research manuscripts, which they quickly accept and publish in their many online open-access journals. Though they claim to peer review articles, many conduct no peer review at all or carry out a minimalist or pro forma review, accepting and publishing flawed manuscripts that most legitimate journals would reject.

Predatory journals are supported by fees charged to authors upon acceptance of their manuscripts, and their goal is profit. The journals want to accept and publish as many manuscripts as possible to increase their revenue. This income strategy conflicts with peer review, which, when done properly, often results in manuscripts being denied publication.

Predatory publishers have fooled many honest scholars into believing that they are legitimate. Experts at mimicking respected publishing houses, they use sophisticated spam techniques, pandering to researchers through personalized spam that praises a researcher's earlier work while inviting a new submission. Other spam emails appeal to authors needing to publish in journals that have earned an impact factor. Companies now exist that supply fake impact factors to questionable journals, metrics they then display in their spam email advertising.

Problems caused by predatory publishing

Predatory publishing harms the scientific community in numerous ways. First, authors may be misled into investing their money and intellectual capital in a journal that they think is high impact and stable when it is neither. Some predatory online publications exist for very short periods of time and are rarely cited in journals that are indexed by reputable databases.

Second, predatory publishing has created a substantial body of published literature that is branded as science, but has not passed through adequate peer review, which is a primary form of quality control. For many readers, reporters and the public, the distinction between authentic and junk science is not readily discernable, yet these publications are readily accessible by anyone.

Compounding the problem, comprehensive academic indexes such as Google Scholar routinely index the junk science, mingling it with authentic research in search results. How are learners, such as high school and college students, supposed to tell them apart? Moreover, new research builds on already-published research, as anyone who has ever compiled a literature review knows. Writing such reviews now requires additional skill and more effort, for the author now must filter out unvetted research.

What can be done?

Researchers and academic disciplines benefit from open access to well-managed, high-quality journals. So what can be done to protect the integrity of open-access publishing?

First, researchers need to develop a "scholarly publishing literacy" skillset to recognize and avoid predatory publishers. Researchers can no longer assume that all scholarly journals are trustworthy and must be on guard against the perils of predatory publishers. Educating graduate students, fellows and junior faculty about predatory publishing should become a routine part of mentoring. (See sidebar for tips from APA staff on how to avoid predatory publishers.)

Second, scholars can refuse to serve on the editorial boards of predatory publishers, which seek to enhance their reputations by creating affiliations with scholars at reputable academic institutions.

Finally, the process of scholarly evaluation must adjust to reflect the new reality of scholarly publishing. Tenure and promotion committees must more carefully scrutinize candidates' publishing records. A quick scan of a CV is no longer sufficient, for journal titles that look authentic may not be. To be fair to those seeking promotion and tenure, this recommendation needs to be combined with the first — educating scholars about appropriate venues for scholarly publishing.

The world of publishing is quickly evolving. Electronic media are increasingly supplanting print media; journals are increasingly accessed through subscription packages rather than subscriptions to individual journals; and funding agencies and professional associations are increasingly pushing for free public access to scientific publications. The challenge before us is to protect the integrity of scholarly publishing even as we adapt to new technologies, circumstances and demands.

By Jeffrey Beall, DSc, a librarian at the University of Colorado Denver & James M. Dubois, PhD, the director of the Center for Clinical Research Ethics at Washington University in St. Louis.


Did you find this article useful?

2 0